NU Water-Related Research in Box Butte County

The list below shows water-related research being conducted within your district or that affects your district. They are sorted by water topic, then by primary contact's last name.

Displaying 18 records found for Box Butte County


Topic Crop Nutrient Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Wortmann, Charles
Unit Agronomy and Horticulture
Email cwortmann2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-2909
Web Page http://agronomy.unl.edu/wortmann
Project Information
Title Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Irrigated Corn for Three Cropping Systems in Nebraska
Other(s) Charles Shapiro, Agronomy & Horticulture, cshapiro@unl.edu; Richard Ferguson, Agronomy & Horticulture, rferguson1@unl.edu; Gary Hergert, Panhandle Research & Extension Center, ghergert1@unl.edu 
Description

Overview Nitrogen fertilizer will continue to be indispensible for meeting global food, feed, and fiber needs. Voroneyand Derry (2008) estimated that 340 million Mg yr-1 N is fixed by natural means, including lightning and biological N fixation, and 105 million Mg yr-1 is fixed by human activities, including burning of fossil fuels and N fertilizer production, with N fixation by human activities expected to continue to increase. Townsend and Howarth (2010) estimated the amount of N fixed by human activities to be about 180 million Mg yr-1, with most used as mineral fertilizer. Fertilizer N production has important environmental implications with an average of ~2.55 kg CO2 emitted per kg fertilizer N fixed and transported (Liska et al., 2009). Th e amount of N applied is associated with emission of N2O (IPCC–OECD, 1997) and N accumulation in sensitive aquatic, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems (Groffman, 2008; Malakoff , 1998). Th e challenge is to produce more grain to meet growing global needs with high NUE.

Conclusions Across diverse production environments, high corn yields can be achieved with efficient use of soil and applied N and without high risk of NO3 -N leaching to groundwater. With excellent farm management, recovery of applied fertilizer-N in high-yielding corn fields of Nebraska was well above 60 to 70% at the economically optimal nitrogen rate (EONR), resulting in low residual soil nitrate nitrogen (RSN) levels. Agronomic efficiency and crop partial factor productivity (PFP), the Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) components most closely related to profitability of production, can also be high at EONR. Less preplant and more in-season N application may be especially important for drybean (CD) which had low recovery efficiency (RE) and much postharvest RSN compared with corn (CC) and soybean (CS). The levels of NUE achieved in our study for CC and CS far exceed current national or regional means, demonstrating the potential for high NUE with high yield corn production. Further NUE efficiency may be gained through more accurate in-season N application such as with use of the presidedress NO3 test (Andraski and Bundy, 2002) and spatial variation in N rate in response to variation in crop need, such as through use of reflectance sensors (Scharf and Lory, 2009; Barker and Sawyer, 2010; Roberts et al., 2010).

Project Support Nebraska State Legislature, Nebraska Agricultural Business Association
Project Website
Report Wortmann_NUE.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title No-till Cropping Systems for Stretching Limited Irrigation Supplies
Other(s) Paul Burgener, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, pburgener2@unl.edu; Alexander Pavlista, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, apavlista1@unl.edu 
Description

A no-till limited irrigated cropping system for stretching limited irrigation supplies, including winter wheat, corn, dry beans and canola, was initiated in 2005 at the Panhandle Research and Extension Center. Under limited irrigation, less water is applied than is required to meet full evapotranspiration demand and the crop is stressed. Irrigation levels are 5, 10 and 15 inches for corn and 4, 8 and 12 inches for all other crops The goal is to manage cultural practices and irrigation timing so the resulting water stress has less of a negative impact on grain yield. The objectives of the project are to: 1) develop limited irrigation production functions for lower water-using crops that fit the panhandle using a no-tillage cropping system to maximize water use efficiency; and 2) use production function data to develop economic information on the impact of reduced water on farm income and effects on local government and agricultural businesses. The research information is necessary to provide an on-going information base to support demonstration efforts similar to the current project in the Pumpkin Creek Watershed.

Project Support North Platte Natural Resources District
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Yonts, C. Dean
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email cyonts1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1246
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/faculty33
Project Information
Title Development of season long deficit irrigation strategies for sugarbeets
Description Drought continues to limit the amount of surface water that is available for irrigation throughout the Western Sugar Cooperative growing region. In some cases, growers must choose which fields or crops to irrigate because adequate water is not available. Restrictions on ground water pumping and the lack of surface water due to drought make it necessary to use available water supplies both effectively and efficiently. A research project is being conducted at Scottsbluff using sprinkler irrigation. The experiment is designed to observe the impact of water stress by comparing crop yield from nine different levels of irrigation. Irrigation treatments range from irrigation to no irrigation during the growing season.
Project Support Western Sugar Cooperative Grower Research Committee
Project Website
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Economics
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Johnson, Bruce
Unit Agricultural Economics
Email bjohnson2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-1794
Web Page http://www.agecon.unl.edu/facultystaff/Specialization/bjohnson.html
Project Information
Title Farm Real Estate Ownership Transfer Patterns in Nebraska's Panhandle Region
Other(s) Dennis M. Conley, Center for Applied Rural Innovation, dconley1@unl.edu; Gibson Nene, Ag Economics, gnene1@bigred.unl.edu; Patrick L. Krepel 
Description

The purpose of this study was to review and analyze the entire universe of relatively recent agricultural real estate activity in the multi-county, Panhandle Region of Nebraska. This region - Banner, Box Butte, Cheyenne, Dawes, Deuel, Garden, Kimball, Morrill, Scotts Bluff, Sheridan, and Sioux counties - was chosen because of the widely-held perception that a considerable number of acquisitions in recent years were by absentee owners. By investigating all recorded agricultural land transfers (filed in public records) for the period 2003 through the first half of 2006, we were able to identify the true characteristics of the market and analyze the associated implications.

This multi-year study of the market for agricultural real estate properties in the Nebraska Panhandle region provides a solid perspective of the market. Among the key findings were:

  • The rate of ownership turnover of agricultural holdings in the Nebraska Panhandle region is very thin, averaging less than 2 percent per year over the study period.
  • Out-of-state buyers have a strong presence in the agricultural land market of the region, acquiring more than half of the transferred agricultural land.
  • While out-of-state market participants were quite active on the buyer side of the market, they were also quite active on the seller side of the market. In fact, for every10 acres purchased by this group, they sold nearly 13 acres; thus leading to a net decrease in this group’s holdings of some 70,000 acres (equivalent to about one percent of the region’s total agricultural base). In short, there is no evidence to suggest a major shift in land tenure towards out-of-state owners.
  • There are a variety of reasons for acquiring agricultural land, and this was certainly in evidence in this study. Moreover, the primary reasons tended to show marked differences across the buyer classes. Among the out-of-state buyer group, investment was reported as the primary reason for purchase. In contrast, local buyers most frequently reported expansion (of existing property holdings) as their primary motive.
  • The overall dynamics of the market for agricultural real estate in the Panhandle area of the state show eclectic market conditions - markets no longer limited to local participants, but, instead, markets with a heavy presence of individuals from around the region and state and beyond. In turn, the motivations for buying and selling in the current market environment are highly variable, and are likely to remain so.
Project Support University of Nebraska Rural Initiative
Project Website http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/ruralinitiativepubs/6/
Report Johnson Farm Real Estate.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title Limited Irrigation Cropping for Conserving Water Resources in the Pumpkin Creek Watershed
Other(s) Gary Stone, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, gstone2@unl.edu; C. Dean Yonts, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, cyonts1@unl.edu; Jim Schild, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, jschild1@unl.edu 
Description

Limited irrigation and no-till cropping systems are the focus of an extension project for the Pumpkin Creek Watershed which has a yearly NRD allocation of 12-inches for well irrigation. The project objectives are to: 1) demonstrate limited irrigation and no-tillage cropping systems to maximize groundwater supplies, and 2) educate area producers, local government and agricultural businesses about different management scenarios. Drought over the past eight years has magnified the problems associated with declining ground water in Pumpkin Creek and the High Plains Aquifer and maintaining profitable agriculture while protecting surface and ground water supplies is a complex issue. The demonstration project has shown producers that they can manage with less water, but they must adapt to new cropping and no-till systems and irrigation management techniques.

June 4, 2010 CropWatch Article

Project presentation by Gary Stone at the 2008 Water Colloquium

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service, North Platte Natural Resoruces District
Project Website http://panhandle.unl.edu/pumpkincreek
Report Pumpkin Creek Poster Resized 40 x 48 4-20-2010.pdf
Current Status Underway
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Other(s) Jim Schild, Interim Associate Director, jschild1@unl.edu; Steve Sibray, School of Natural Resources, ssibray1@unl.edu 
Description

The Panhandle Research and Extension Center, located in the heart of western Nebraska in Scottsbluff, houses 19 faculty with appointments in agriculture and family and consumer science through the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Most of the faculty hold joint appointments in research and extension. The Cooperative Extension program in a 17-county area of the Panhandle and north-central Nebraska is also administered at the Center.

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln has had a presence in western Nebraska for over 85 years. In 1909, the University of Nebraska Experiment Station and the USDA jointly homesteaded a quarter section of land five miles east of Mitchell. Initial research was in the area of crop production under gravity irrigation. Research emphasis increased and soon included studies in sheep, swine, dairy, and beef production, in addition to many other crop areas. The 800 acre Experimental Range in Sioux County was deeded to the University of Nebraska by President Woodrow Wilson in 1918. Satellite agricultural laboratories at Alliance and Sidney, Nebraska were added in 1967. Through a fortunate set of circumstances, the headquarters of the Panhandle Station moved to the former Hiram Scott College campus after the state had acquired the property after the school closed in the early 1970s. The headquarters and surrounding research plots are located just north of the city of Scottsbluff. To reflect the University's involvement throughout the Panhandle, the name was officially changed to the Panhandle Research and Extension Center in 1985. The addition of the Learning Center, a joint effort of the Division of Continuing Studies and Cooperative Extension, in 1987 significantly enhanced the educational opportunities for western Nebraska residents.

Project Support Varies according to program and project - for more information see http://www.panhandle.unl.edu
Project Website http://www.panhandle.unl.edu
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://www.panhandle.unl.edu/personnel/personnel_hergert.htm
Project Information
Title Improving Nitrogen Management for White Wheat
Description

Winter wheat, long a mainstay of dryland agriculture in the Panhandle, is being grown on a growing number of irrigated fields because it will grow under limited irrigation and wheat prices have risen to cover irrigation costs. Nonetheless, limited irrigation and increasing fertilizer prices mean producers need to sharpen their management skills. Research is proving that soil testing, timing fertilizer applications and managing application rates are all very important to growing winter wheat.

Preliminary data from this research shows top yields come when one third of the fertilizer is applied in the fall and two-thirds at boot stage. Maximum yields have been produced when the amount of residual nitrogen in the top four feet of soil, along with the applied fertilizer, totals 200-210 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Top nitrogen rates to maximize yield have not been higher than 100 pounds per acre, which is lower than commonly used to produce high yields. These recommendations for white wheat should also apply to hard red wheat.

Project Support Nebraska Wheat Board
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title Consumptive Water Use Maps for the Nebraska Panhandle
Other(s) Ayse Irmak, School of Natural Resources, airmak2@unl.edu; Derrel Martin, Biological Systems Engineering, dmartin1@unl.edu; Gary Stone, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, gstone2@unl.edu 
Description

The use of ground water, especially for irrigation, is becominng regulated in Nebraska, in response to several factors:

  • Recurrent droughts across the High Plains and Inter-Mountain West have magnified the problem of declining ground water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA), often referred to as the Ogallala aquifer, underlies Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Nearly 30% of the ground water used for irrigation in the United States is extracted from the HPA. A significant proportion of the aquifer underlies Nebraska. In the North Platte Basin, the drought has resulted in reduced surface water deliveries, which in turn has led to less ground water recharge and declining water tables.
  • Nebraska ground water law has evolved. Ground water levels began declining in some parts of Nebraska after extensive irrigation development began in the 1960s. LB108 in 1996 recognized the relationship between ground and surface water, and LB962 (2004) provided new regulatory measures for integrated management of ground water and surface water. Natural resources districts (NRDs) have adopted allocations for ground water pumping in some areas. The North Platte NRD has established ground water allocations of 12 acre-inches in the Pumpkin Creek Basin and 18 acre-inches in the North Platte Valley for 2009. New or expanded ground water uses are prohibited throughout the NRD unless they are offset with transfers of existing uses.

The goal of this project is to develop the expertise in remote sensing image acquisition and computing, using the METRIC(tm) procedure; to produce area-specific consumptive water use (CWU) maps; and to develop, test and demonstrate the tools that will take these CWU maps and turn them into immediately usable products for planning, managing and regulating groundwater. The CWU maps will be the primary product of this project. They are developed from LANDSAT images by applying Mapping EvapoTranspiration with High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC(tm)) algorithms.

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service
Project Website http://panhandle.unl.edu/web/panhandlerec/metric
Report
Current Status Website Available
Pic 1 Project Image
Pic Caption 1 Water level changes in the High Plains Aquifer from 1980 - 1994 
Topic Groundwater
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Swinehart, James B.
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email jswinehart1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-7529
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=487
Project Information
Title Geology and Groundwater Supplies of Box Butte County, Nebraska
Other(s) Vernon L. Souders (project lead, retired); Frank A. Smith (retired), fsmith1@unl.edu 
Description

This report describes the relationship between the geology and the groundwater supplies in Box Butte County. It also evaluates the aquifers with respect to waterbearing characteristics and groundwater in storage. It further describes recharge to and discharge from the aquifers, outlines the movement of groundwater in the county, and summarizes the changes in groundwater storage that have occurred since the advent of irrigation in the county. Brief descriptions of the topography and drainage are included. An evaluation of climatic data for Box Butte County and the Nebraska Panhandle is incorporated into this report and several observations are made about climate in relation to groundwater and the irrigation requirements of crops. Brief mention is made of the soils and agricultural activity in the county.

The report estimates that to date (1975-1976) the amount of groundwater in storage has decreased 2-3% since 1938 and perhaps 1/2 of this decrease has occurred since 1964. The most serious water level declines were immediately north of Alliance in an area where the groundwater resource is large. This area had the highest concentration of irrigation wells and is also the oldest irrigated part of the county.

The report explicitly does not answer the question, "How long will the water supply last?" Rather the authors make the point that economic considerations and social attitudes are just as important as the characteristics of local groundwater supplies in answering that question.

Project Support Upper Niobrara White Natural Resources District, U.S. Geological Survey
Project Website
Report WSP-47.pdf
Current Status Test Holes Drilled Fall 1975-Spring 1976, Report Published 1980. An electronic copy of the report is available above; A hard copy is available via Nebraska Maps and More
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Ayers, Jerry
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email jayers1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-0996
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=5
Project Information
Title Box Butte County / Niobrara River Numerical Groundwater Flow Model Studies
Description

The main objective of these studies was to determine the effect, if any, of large-scale regional pumping on the base flow of the Niobrara River. One study involved the construction and implementation of a groundwater-flow model for Box Butte County and the surrounding region to simulate hydrogeologic and hydraulic conditions, including groundwater extraction by large-capacity wells. The other study focused on the upper reaches of the Niobrara River to obtain estimates of stream-bed hydraulic conductivity (i.e., the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures in the stream-bed) to be used as input to the modeling effort.

The groundwater-flow model was calibrated to predevelopment by primarily adjusting recharge flux through a trial-and-error process until a reasonable fit was obtained to the observed water table configuration of 1938. Once calibrated to predevelopment heads, transient simulations (i.e., simulations taking into account real-life conditions, thus modeling potential real-life changes in the basin), were run to model the change in heads due to pumping for the time period between 1938 and 2005. Results from these simulations were compared with observed heads for available years. After satisfactory results were obtained from the transient simulations, two additional scenarios were tested. These were simulations where all wells were turned off and where only those wells in Box Butte County and its proximity were active. The computer program ZONEBUDGET, which computes the water budget for user-defined zones, was run coincident with all simulations. Both head and water budget computation results were then used to determine the effect of pumping on the base flow the Niobrara River.

Based on model results, reductions in the base flow of the Niobrara River is due primarily to localized pumping effects, rather than from groundwater extraction on a regional scale. A comparison of simulated outflow values for selected reaches of the Niobrara River indicates that 1) flow characteristics in the uppermost part of the basin did not change greatly over the period of pumping indicating that base flow is not significantly reduced by large-scale pumping, 2) significant changes in base flow appear to have occurred after about 1960 in the middle and lower reaches, 3) the maximum change in flow for the middle reach due to all wells pumping is 19.6% and only 4.4% for Box Butte wells, with both maximum reductions occurring at the end of the 2005 pumping season, 4) the maximum change in flow for the lower reach is about 24.4% for all wells and only 2.5% for Box Butte wells, again, both occur at the end of the 2005 pumping season. Overall, the Niobrara River appears to be a gaining stream along most of its flow path, with the exception of the uppermost part of the basin.

The conclusion is that the affects of large-scale regional pumping appears to not impact base flow in the Niobrara River to any significant degree. Rather, localized pumping, especially where irrigation wells are situated near the river, reduces base flow on the order of 20% to 25%. For the most part, the Niobrara River valley is somewhat isolated from the extensive pumping taking place in Box Butte County. The upper reach is sufficiently distant from the pumping center that the cone of depression has little effect on the water table. Much of the middle reach transects units of the White River group that are considered to be nearly impermeable, and thus, provide a hydrogeologic barrier, preventing the northward expansion of the cone of depression. Pumping along the lower reach of the Niobrara River has a much greater influence on base flow reduction simply due to the proximity of the extraction wells to the river.

Project Support Nebraska Department of Natural Resources
Project Website http://www.dnr.state.ne.us/Publications_Studies/Box-Butte_ModelProjectCompletionReport.pdf
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Lenters, John
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email jlenters2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-9044
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=743
Project Information
Title On Basin Residence Time and Annual Hydrology: Development of Annual Hydrology Model of the Sandhills Rivers
Other(s) Erkan Istanbulluoglu, University of Washington, erkani@u.washington.edu; Durelle Scott, Virginia Tech, dscott@vt.edu; Tiejun Wang, University of Washington-Seattle, tjwang@u.washington.edu 
Description

Simple models of annual and mean annual basin runoff and evapotranspration, such as the one proposed by Budyko, are useful for investigating the relationship between river flow and climate, and planning water storage structures in basins where long term streamflow measurements are not available. Such models are often based on the assumption that annual precipitation is in balance with annual runoff and evapotranspiration, and change in water storage of the basin is negligible. In basins where groundwater is the dominant source of streamflow this assumption hardly holds.

In this study first we develop a technique to investigate groundwater residence time to identify time scales over which a simple model of mean annual runoff can be meaningfully used. The model is applied in the Niobrara and Loup Rivers. Second we develop an annual hydrology model by solving the rate of change in basin storage. The runoff component of the model is based on the well-known linear reservoir model and a parameterization to characterize runoff on saturated areas. River water storages and streamflow diverted for irrigation are included as inputs in the model. The model explained as high as 80% of the annual variability of runoff in the Niobrara River at the Sparks gage. The model underscores the importance of saturation overland flow in the basin. Finally we used the model to investigate climate change scenarios, including extreme dry and wet conditions, as well as scenarios for the Medieval Warm Period during which Sandhills were destabilized as suggested by geological evidence.

Project presentation at the 2008 Water Colloquium

Project Support National Science Foundation
Project Website
Report Lenters_Groundwater.pdf
Current Status Published "On the role of groundwater and soil texture in the regional water balance: An investigation of the Nebraska Sand Hills", USA, Water Resour. Res., 45, W10413, doi:10.1029/2009WR007733.
Topic Production Agriculture
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Yonts, C. Dean
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email cyonts1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1246
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/faculty33
Project Information
Title Conserving soil water using a no-till system with a crop rotation of sugarbeets, dry beans and corn
Other(s) John A. Smith, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, jasmith@unlnotes.unl.edu 
Description Use of no-till production systems for sugarbeets and dry edible beans is very low in western Nebraska. On the other hand, a significant part of the corn acreage in this region does use no-tillage, or a practice that is very close to no-tillage. There are several real and perceived reasons for this difference in acreage of no-tillage productions systems between these crops. Reasons often given include difficulty of precision planting, need for mechanical incorporation of herbicides, multiple cultivations for weed control, furrowing for furrow irrigation and for guidance for harvest operations, providing a ridge for harvest of dry beans, and the "tillage-like actions" of harvest equipment. With the availability of glyphosate resistant corn and sugarbeets, weed control becomes substantially easier. The experiment is designed to observe two different crop rotations - corn, dry beans, corn, sugarbeets and corn, corn, drybeans. Tillage systems being tested include conventional plow, zone till and no till. The primary objective of this project is to determine the amount of soil water conserved by no-till crop production compared to current production practices with a crop rotation of sugarbeets, dry edible beans, and corn. The secondary purpose is to measure effectiveness of planting and weed control systems for no-till dry beans and sugarbeets, and direct harvest of no-till dry edible beans using the newest available production technologies.
Project Support Anna Elliott Fund
Project Website
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Production Agriculture
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Yonts, C. Dean
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email cyonts1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1246
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/faculty/Yonts.shtml
Project Information
Title Crop Management Workshop, August 20-21, 2008
Other(s) Jim Schild, jschild@unlnotes.unl.edu; John Smith, jasmith@unlnotes.unl.edu; Bob Wilson, rwilson@unlnotes.unl.edu; Carlos Urrea, currea2@unl.edu; Gary Hein, ghein@unlnotes.unl.edu; Gary Hergert, ghergert@unlnotes.unl.edu; and Bob Harveson, rharveso@unlnotes.unl.edu, Panhandle Research and Extension Center 
Description Crop management workshops are designed to assist the industry in gaining knowledge in production of crops grown in the Panhandle of Nebraska. Regional insurance adjusters from the High Plains region will be given training on dry edible bean production over a two day period in the following areas: effect of plant water stress, growth and development, soil compaction, harvesting, herbicide carryover, impact of drought, insect damage, nutrient requirements, disease management, crop adjustment procedures and quality adjustment factors.
Project Support National Crop Insurance Service
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hu, Qi (Steve)
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email qhu2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-6642
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=54
Project Information
Title The Missing Term in Surface Water Balance in the Great Plains
Other(s) Jinsheng You, School of Natural Resources, jyou2@unl.edu 
Description

It has been recognized that the surface water budget derived from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and other existing climatic datasets is not in balance in the Great Plains region. This imbalance is shown by large surface evaporation which cannot be supported by source terms in the budget equation. This large surface evaporation is always appearing in calculations from the surface and soil moisture conditions specified in those datasets. This imbalance poses serious uncertainties to diagnostic and modeling studies of energy and carbon balances and to our understanding of atmospheric/climatic processes in this region. An effort aiming at identifying sources causing the water budget imbalance has been underway and some preliminary results have been obtained. A main source of the imbalance arises from the calculation of the surface evaporation. It was found that the surface and soil water specified in those datasets (developed from integrations of both observations and model simulations) is biased because of inaccurate descriptions of the soil properties, particularly the sandy soils in the Nebraska Sand Hills. A revised model with more accurate descriptions of the soils and soil hydrology in the Sand Hills has produced a balance surface water budget in the Sand Hills.

Project presentation at the 2008 Water Colloquium

Project Support Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Project Website
Report
Current Status
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hubbard, Kenneth
Unit High Plains Regional Climate Center
Email khubbard1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-8294
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=55
Project Information
Title Assessment of Soil Moisture Dynamics of the Nebraska Sandhills Using Long-Term Measurements and a Hydrology Model
Other(s) Venkataramana Sridhar; David Wedin, School of Natural Resources, dwedin1@unl.edu 
Description Soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and other major water balance components were investigated for six Nebraska Sandhills locations during a 6 year period (1998-2004) using a hydrological model. Annual precipitation in the study period ranged from 330 to 580 mm. Soil moisture was measured continuously at 10, 25, 50, and 100 cm depth at each site. Model estimates of surface (0-30 cm), subsurface (30-91 cm), and root zone (0-122 cm) soil moisture were generally well correlated with observed soil moisture. The correlations were poorest for the surface layer, where soil moisture values fluctuated sharply, and best for the root zone as a whole. Modeled annual estimates of evapotranspiration and drainage beneath the rooting zone showed large differences between sites and between years. Despite the Sandhills' relatively homogeneous vegetation and soils, the high spatiotemporal variability of major water balance components suggest an active interaction among various hydrological processes in response to precipitation in this semiarid region.
Project Support National Science Foundation, High Plains Regional Climate Center
Project Website
Report Hubbard06.pdf
Current Status Published in Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, September/October 2006, 463-473
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Loope, David
Unit Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Email dloope1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-2647
Web Page http://eas.unl.edu/people/faculty_page.php?lastname=Loope&firstname=David&type=REG
Project Information
Title Large Wind Shift on the Great Plains During the Medieval Warm Period
Other(s) Venkataramana Sridhar; James Swinehart, School of Natural Resources, jswinehart1@unl.edu; Joseph Mason, University of Wisconsin, Madison, mason@geography.wisc.edu; Robert Oglesby, School of Natural Resources, roglesby2@unl.edu; Clinton Rowe, Geosciences, crowe1@unl.edu 
Description Spring-Summer winds from the south move moist air from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Plains. Growing season rainfall sustains prairie grasses that keep large dunes in the Nebraska Sandhills immobile. Longitudinal dunes built during the Medieval Warm Period (800-100 yBP) record the last major period of sand mobility. These dunes are oriented NW-SE and are composed of cross-strata with bi-polar dip directions. The trend and structure of these dunes directly record a prolonged drought that was initiated and sustained by a historically unprecedented shift of Spring-Summer atmospheric circulation over the Plains: southerly flow of moist air was replaced by dry southwesterly flow.
Project Support National Science Foundation
Project Website
Report Loope Wind Shift.pdf
Current Status Published in Science November 2007 318:1284-1286
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Zlotnik, Vitaly
Unit Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Email vzlotnik1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-2495
Web Page http://eas.unl.edu/people/faculty_page.php?lastname=Zlotnik&firstname=Vitaly&type=REG
Project Information
Title Variability in Lake Salinity in the Sand Hills
Other(s) John Lenters, School of Natural Resources, jlenters2@unl.edu; Collaborating institutions: Indiana University, Oklahoma State University, U.S. Geological Survey 
Description

This research explores variability in lake salinity in the Sand Hills, which is the largest vegetated sand dune field in the western hemisphere. Numerous lakes occur in topographic depressions under west-east regional groundwater flow. In Sheridan and Garden counties alone there are approximately 400 lakes with surface areas larger than 4 hectare. The concentration of total dissolved solids in lake water ranges from fresh to very saline (three times higher than the ocean salinity). At the same time, the groundwater is fresh. Although several hypotheses are available, causes of wide salinity variations within this large area have not been determined conclusively. Geographically, this project is focused on Crescent Lake National Refuge area and the vicinities.

Understanding salinization mechanisms will explain climate effects on lake salinity and the potential for their existence in the Sand Hills. In addition, results can be utilized for detection and prediction of the consequences of deposition of saline or contaminated water over shallow freshwater aquifers in environmental disasters, such as hurricanes (e.g., Mississippi and Louisiana, U.S., 2005), tsunamis (e.g., Indonesia, Bangladesh in 2005), and large-scale land salinization (e.g., Murray Basin, Australia).

Project Support National Science Foundation
Project Website
Report Sandhills_Salinity_Final_Report.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Wildlife
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Young, Chelsey
Unit Biology, UNK
Email youngca2@unk.edu
Phone 507-469-8284
Web Page
Project Information
Title A range-wide assessment of plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus) distribution and potential threats
Other(s) W. Wyatt Hoback, Biology UNK, hobackww@unk.edu; Keith Koupal, Biology UNK; Justin Haas 
Description The plains topminnow, Fundulus sciadicus, was once distributed from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, north to South Dakota and as far south as Oklahoma. Two centers of distribution are recognized. One is centered in Nebraska and the second is centered in Missouri. The geographic range of plains topminnow has decreased in the past decades. Plains topminnow are now considered a species of special concern in the state of Nebraska and listed as a Tier 1 species in the Nebraska Natural Legacy Project. Elimination of plains topminnow populations has been associated with introduction of invasive species, as well as loss of backwater habitats due to drought and lowered water tables. The objective of this project is to provide an updated assessment of plains topminnow distribution and population status as compared to all available historical records. Between 2004 and the present, sampling of plains topminnow revealed that in Nebraska 77% of historic Nebraska sites no longer contain plains topminnow populations. The sampling of remaining historic sites in Nebraska and neighboring states will continue in the 2009 sampling season.
Project Support n/a
Project Website
Report topminnow_range_reduction.pdf
Current Status Completed