NU Water-Related Research in Hall County

The list below shows water-related research being conducted within your district or that affects your district. They are sorted by water topic, then by primary contact's last name.

Displaying 28 records found for Hall County


Topic Crop Nutrient Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Wortmann, Charles
Unit Agronomy and Horticulture
Email cwortmann2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-2909
Web Page http://agronomy.unl.edu/wortmann
Project Information
Title Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Irrigated Corn for Three Cropping Systems in Nebraska
Other(s) Charles Shapiro, Agronomy & Horticulture, cshapiro@unl.edu; Richard Ferguson, Agronomy & Horticulture, rferguson1@unl.edu; Gary Hergert, Panhandle Research & Extension Center, ghergert1@unl.edu 
Description

Overview Nitrogen fertilizer will continue to be indispensible for meeting global food, feed, and fiber needs. Voroneyand Derry (2008) estimated that 340 million Mg yr-1 N is fixed by natural means, including lightning and biological N fixation, and 105 million Mg yr-1 is fixed by human activities, including burning of fossil fuels and N fertilizer production, with N fixation by human activities expected to continue to increase. Townsend and Howarth (2010) estimated the amount of N fixed by human activities to be about 180 million Mg yr-1, with most used as mineral fertilizer. Fertilizer N production has important environmental implications with an average of ~2.55 kg CO2 emitted per kg fertilizer N fixed and transported (Liska et al., 2009). Th e amount of N applied is associated with emission of N2O (IPCC–OECD, 1997) and N accumulation in sensitive aquatic, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems (Groffman, 2008; Malakoff , 1998). Th e challenge is to produce more grain to meet growing global needs with high NUE.

Conclusions Across diverse production environments, high corn yields can be achieved with efficient use of soil and applied N and without high risk of NO3 -N leaching to groundwater. With excellent farm management, recovery of applied fertilizer-N in high-yielding corn fields of Nebraska was well above 60 to 70% at the economically optimal nitrogen rate (EONR), resulting in low residual soil nitrate nitrogen (RSN) levels. Agronomic efficiency and crop partial factor productivity (PFP), the Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) components most closely related to profitability of production, can also be high at EONR. Less preplant and more in-season N application may be especially important for drybean (CD) which had low recovery efficiency (RE) and much postharvest RSN compared with corn (CC) and soybean (CS). The levels of NUE achieved in our study for CC and CS far exceed current national or regional means, demonstrating the potential for high NUE with high yield corn production. Further NUE efficiency may be gained through more accurate in-season N application such as with use of the presidedress NO3 test (Andraski and Bundy, 2002) and spatial variation in N rate in response to variation in crop need, such as through use of reflectance sensors (Scharf and Lory, 2009; Barker and Sawyer, 2010; Roberts et al., 2010).

Project Support Nebraska State Legislature, Nebraska Agricultural Business Association
Project Website
Report Wortmann_NUE.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Irmak, Suat
Unit Biological Systems Engineering
Email sirmak2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-4865
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/sirmak2
Project Information
Title Mapping Spatial Distribution of Evapotranspiration and Other Energy Fluxes for Key Vegetation Surfaces
Other(s) Ayse Irmak, School of Natural Resources, airmak2@unl.edu; Shashi Verma, School of Natural Resources, sverma1@unl.edu; Derrel Martin, Biological Systems Engineering, dmartin2@unl.edu 
Description Efficient use of water resources in semi-arid agro-ecosystems of Nebraska is an important issue because of the rapid depletion of freshwater resources and drought conditions, and degradation of groundwater quality in recent years. Proper planning and management, and related policy decisions of water resources require accurate quantification of evapotranspiration (ET). An extensive field campaign has been initiated with the Central Platte Natural Resources District and UNL in the Central Platte River Valley to measure ET and other surface energy fluxes for various vegetation surfaces. The vegetation surfaces include, center pivot-irrigated grassland, rainfed grassland, rainfed winter wheat, center pivot-irrigated alfalfa, Phragmites australis-dominated cottonwood and willow stand plant community, irrigated maize, irrigated soybeans. A deluxe version of Bowen ratio energy balance systems are being used to measure ET and other surface energy balance components, soil moisture, and plant physiological parameters in each research site.
Project Support Central Platte Natural Resources District
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Skipton, Sharon
Unit Southeast Research and Extension Center
Email sskipton1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-3662
Web Page http://www.southeast.unl.edu/staffdir/Skipton_Sharon
Project Information
Title Southeast Research and Extension Center
Other(s) Gary Zoubek, York County Extension, gzoubek@unl.edu 
Description Each day University of Nebraska Extension makes a difference in the lives of adults and youth. The faculty and staff in the Southeast Research and Extension Center and the 28 County Offices work to bring relevant researched based information to people in communities, towns and urban centers. Our efforts rely increasingly on partnerships with government agencies, business, industry, schools and community organizations. Working together with our partners Extension strives to strengthen the social, economic and environmental base of Nebraska's communities. Our programs must be ever-changing as Extension listens and responds to issues as they evolve. The Southeast Research and Extension District is unique because it serves both urban and rural communities Nebraska. The faculty and staff are committed to bringing the resources of the University and its research based information to the individuals and communities of Southeast Nebraska.
Project Support Varies according to program and project - for more information see http://www.southeast.unl.edu/
Project Website http://www.southeast.unl.edu/
Report
Current Status Continuous
Topic Groundwater
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Perera-Estrada, Hugo
Unit Agronomy and Horticulture
Email hpereaestrada2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-6085
Web Page
Project Information
Title Modeling Groundwater Nitrate Transport Beneath a Ground Water Quality Management Area in the Central Platte Region of Nebraska
Other(s) Mary E. Exner, School of Natural Resources, mspalding1@unl.edu; Roy Spalding, Agronomy and Horticulture, rspalding1@unl.edu 
Description A Ground Water Quality Management Area (GWQMA) is being evaluated to determine the effectiveness of producer practices in reducing high nitrate levels that result from excessive N-fertilizer and irrigation water applications. The assessment of nitrate movement in the primary and secondary aquifer relies on simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport beneath the 588 km2 Phase III GWQMA. The Platte River is in hydraulic connection with the aquifer and forms the southern boundary of the model. The northern boundary parallels the northern edge of the GWQMA. Hydraulic conductivities from test hole data, irrigation well pedigree information and nitrate concentrations from 1988 to 2003 were input to a 3-D groundwater finite difference model. A Neumann or second-type boundary condition was established for the northern and southern model boundaries. Prescribed heads (Dirichlet-type boundary condition) were imposed on the upgradient and downgradient sides of the GWQMA. The thicknesses of the primary (upper) and secondary aquifers are somewhat variable in the investigated area as are hydraulic conductivities in the secondary aquifer. The groundwater model was calibrated in the steady-state mode with hydraulic head data from 1988 to 2003. The flow path and travel times within the study area result in an approximate evaluation of the susceptibility to nitrate contamination with transport. Results are described in 2-D and 3-D graphical visualizations. Hydraulic head and water quality data from adjacent monitoring wells screened in either the primary or secondary aquifers were used to quantify nitrate transport between the aquifers.
Project Support n/a
Project Website http://www.usawaterquality.org/conferences/2009/PDF/CEAP-all/Perera-Estrada09.pdf
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Groundwater
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Spalding, Mary Exner
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email mspalding1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-7547
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=111
Project Information
Title Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Selected Farm Practices in Reducing Groundwater Nitrate
Other(s) Hugo Perera-Estrada, Agronomy and Horticulture, hpereaestrada2@unl.edu; Megan L. Liedte, Statistics; Roy Spalding, Agronomy and Horticulture, rspalding1@unl.edu 
Description Data from 25,961 producer reports and 1,935 irrigation wells were used to assess the effectiveness of management practices within 588 km2 of intensely irrigated corn production in the Platte River drainage in central Nebraska. The area has been regulated as a Phase III Ground Water Quality Management Area by the local Natural Resources District (NRD) for 19 years. The initial spatial analysis of the 1987 groundwater nitrate concentrations revealed an obvious concentration demarcation. Concentrations in the very contaminated northern area averaged 25.7 mg NO3-N/L while those in the southern portion averaged 9.4 mg NO3-N/L. Groundwater nitrate concentrations in the north are significantly correlated with time (r2 = 0.87) and decreased at an average annual rate of 0.24 mg NO3-N/L between 1987 and 2005. No significant concentration trend occurred in the southern area. During the 19 years the amount of N removed in grain increased at an average annual rate of 2 kg N/ha. In the north the association between the increase in N removed in grain and decrease in groundwater NO3-N concentrations is significant. The acreage converted from furrow to sprinkler irrigation increased threefold between 1988 and 2003. In the north the increase in sprinkler-irrigated acres is associated with the decrease in groundwater NO3-N concentrations. The NRD- recommended N-fertilizer rate for each corn field in the Phase III area is based upon a realistic yield goal and NRD-modified university N-fertilizer recommendation with credits for residual soil N and N available in irrigation water. From 1988 to 2003 N-fertilizer rates on 62 to 88% of the fields were within ± 56 kg N/ha (50 lb N/ha) of the NRD recommendation. The remaining fields were more likely to be fertilized at rates greater than 56 kg N/ha in excess of the recommendation than receive N at rates more than 56 kg N/ha below the NRD recommendation.
Project Support n/a
Project Website http://www.usawaterquality.org/conferences/2009/PDF/CEAP-all/Exner09.pdf
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Chen, Xun-Hong
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email xchen2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-0772
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=19
Project Information
Title Hydrologic Connections in the Central Platte River Basin
Other(s) Mark E. Burbach, Conservation and Survey Division, mburbach1@unl.edu; Cheng Cheng, School of Natural Resources, ccheng2@unl.edu 
Description

The hydrologic properties of channel sediments have an important role in controlling hydrologic process in streams. This study focused on the water exchange between a stream and an aquifer induced by groundwater withdrawal, with the purpose of investigating the interbedded feature of channel sediments and to evaluate its effects on the calculation of streamflow depletion. Field work was conducted at nine study sites between Kearney and Columbus during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Direct-push techniques were used to produce electrical conductivity logs and to collect sediment cores. Permeameter tests were conducted on the sediment cores. Stream-aquifer simulation models were used to evaluate streamflow depletion for various types of channel sediments.

Sediment core samples were categorized into four groups:

  • sand and gravel,
  • sand and gravel with interbedded silt and clay layers,
  • fine sand with silt or clay layers, and
  • silt and clay with some sand and gravel.

In general coarse sediments occur in the western part of the study area, and the amount of fine sand, silt and clay increases eastward along the river. However, the sediments in the top two meters are about the same for all the sites, consisting mainly of sand and gravel.

Project Support Central Platte Natural Resources District, Upper Big Blue Natural Resources District, U.S. Geological Survey (through the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Water Center), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Project Website
Report Chen Hydrologic Connections.pdf
Current Status Published in Journal of Hydrology 2008 352:250-266
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Cheng, Cheng
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email ccheng2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472 0772
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/graduatestudent-member.asp?pid=798
Project Information
Title Statistical Distribution of Streambed Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity along the Platte River, Nebraska
Other(s) Xun-Hong Chen, School of Natural Resources, xchen2@unl.edu, Jinxi Song, Deming Wang 
Description Streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) plays an important role in understanding and quantifying the stream-aquifer interactions. While several researchers have discussed the spatial variability of streambed horizontal hydraulic conductivity or Kv at one or several close-located sites in a river, they did not develop any statistical distribution analysis of streambed Kv at distant sites along a large river. In this paper, the statistical distribution and spatial variation of streambed Kv at 18 test sites in a 300-km reach of the Platte River in Nebraska are presented. Insitu permeameter tests using the falling-head method were carried out to calculate the streambed Kv values. Fine-grained sediments transported by two tributaries, the Loup River and the Elkhorn River, to the Platte River appear to result in lower streambed Kv values downstream of the confluences between the Platte River and the tributaries. The streambed Kv values were found to be normally distributed at nearly each test site. When the correlated Kv values were eliminated from the grid sampling plots, the remaining independent sub-datasets of streambed Kv values were still in normal distribution at each test site. Furthermore, the combined streambed Kv values upstream of the first confluence between the Platte River and the Loup River was normally distributed, which may be due to the lack of tributaries in-between and thus streambed sediments were well distributed in this reach and belonged to a single population of hydraulic conductivity values. In contrast, the combined dataset of all measurements conducted downstream of this confluence was no longer in normal distribution, presumably as a result of the mixing of different sediment sources.
Project Support Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of Ministry of Education of China
Project Website
Report Cheng_Distribution.pdf
Current Status Published in Water Resources Management DOI 10.1007/s11269-010-9698-5
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Pederson, Darryll
Unit Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Email dpederson2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-7563
Web Page http://eas.unl.edu/people/faculty_page.php?lastname=Pederson&firstname=Darryll&type=REG
Project Information
Title Waterfalls on the Niobrara River's Spring-fed Tributaries
Description The waterfalls on the spring-fed tributaries of the Niobrara River downstream from Valentine, Nebraska are unique in that the waterfalls are convex downstream. Groundwater discharge on either side of the waterfalls has led to significant weathering because of freeze/thaw cycles in the winter and wet/dry cycles in the summer. The water falling over the face of the falls protects them from the two weathering processes. Because the weathering rates on either side are higher than the erosion rates from falling water, the face of the falls is convex downstream. Similar waterfall face morphology occurs on the Island of Kauai where the main weathering processes are driven by vegetation and the presence of water.
Project Support National Park Service through the Great Plains Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit
Project Website http://snr.unl.edu/gpcesu/Project_library.htm
Report Waterfalls_Abstract.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Wang, Tiejun
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email tiejunwang215@yahoo.com
Phone
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=945
Project Information
Title Niobrara River Flow Variability
Other(s) Erkan Istanbulluoglu, University of Washington, erkani@u.washington.edu 
Description This project develops a database for hydrological and climatological variables within the Niobrara River basin so that researchers may study flow variability in the Niobrara River and its historical changes. Analysis includes all existing and discontinued streamflow gages within the system. Surface water diversion data are also collected to relate to changes in the flow discharge. Annual water yield of the river is studied at Sparks and Verdel gages. A lumped annual water yield model is developed to identify the natural variables that control runoff. The model uses annual runoff as forcing variable, as well as water diversions as outflux from the system. The model is currently being extended to monthly time scales.
Project Support Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, National Park Service
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Invasive Species
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Allen, Craig (advisor)
Unit Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Email callen3@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-0229
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=647
Project Information
Title The Effect of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) on River Otter (Lontra canadensis) Habitat Use
Other(s) Amy Williams, amy_ruth18@hotmail.com; Sam Wilson, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, sam.wilson@nebraska.gov 
Description The river otter (Lontra canadensis) is a threatened species in Nebraska and little is known about its local ecology. The recent invasion of the Platte River by the common reed (Phragmites australis) has altered the riverscape and could have negative effects on otters. Since the reintroduction of river otters to several of Nebraska's river basins beginning in the late 1980's, there have been no quantitative studies examining the status of the population or habitat use of river otters in the state. The recent invasion of P. australis in the Big Bend region of the Platte River has made the need to fill this knowledge gap more critical. We are examining the effects of P. australis on river otters by determining if otters use river ways dominated by P.australis or den in areas of P. australis more or less than expected relative to availability. Sixteen otters were trapped, radio tagged, and tracked between 2006 and 2009. 517 den/resting locations were identified, 127 of which were unique locations. Den/resting site habitat use was compared to availability to determine if otters were using P. australis in proportion to availability. Females use unique sites in P. australis more than expected but males do not. When all locations were analyzed, both males and female used P. australis in proportion to availability. P. australis provides cover for females and is likely used for resting locations when traveling with pups. Information on otter abundance and habitat use from this study will support the creation and implementation of a state river otter management plan and ensure the persistence of a viable otter population in Nebraska.

Project Support

Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Project Website http://snr.unl.edu/necoopunit/research.main.html#river_otters
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Production Agriculture
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Supalla, Raymond
Unit Agricultural Economics
Email rsupalla1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-1792
Web Page http://agecon.unl.edu/supalla
Project Information
Title Economic and State Budget Cost of Reducing the Consumptive Use of Irrigation Water in the Platte and the Republican Basins
Other(s) Brian McMullen, Agricultural Economics, bmcmullen2@unl.edu 
Description

The terms of the Cooperative Agreement for the Platte Basin and the Supreme Court settlement decision for the Republican Basin both require that Nebraska reduce its consumptive use of irrigation water. This analysis evaluated the economic and the budgetary costs of meeting these requirements. Both the on-farm and off-farm costs were evaluated for both land retirement and water allocation programs, implemented in several different ways, over three alternative time periods, 10, 25 and 50 years.

The on-farm economic costs were defined as the change in net farm income associated with less irrigation. Off-farm economic costs were defined as the statewide change in household income resulting from changes in irrigation, as the effects ripple through the Nebraska economy. Budgetary costs were defined as the cost to the state budget (taxpayers) of policies which compensate irrigators for reducing consumptive use are implemented. Statewide economic costs were found to be lower for land retirement than for allocation programs, assuming the same total change in consumptive use. Total budgetary costs depended primarily on: where the irrigation reductions occurred (proximity to river); on how long the program was continued (number of years), and on whether irrigation was reduced voluntarily with incentives, or by regulation, or by some combination of regulation and incentives. It was found that policy makers could minimize the cost of reducing consumptive use from irrigation and augmenting stream flow by purchasing rather than leasing irrigation rights, by using a regulatory rather than a willing seller incentive approach, and by reducing irrigation at locations close to the river.

More on this research in a UNL Agricultural Economics working paper

Project Support n/a
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Riparian Vegetation Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Kilic, Ayse
Unit Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies
Email akilic@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-5351
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=860
Project Information
Title Estimating Riparian Water Use: An Application of Remote Sensing
Description The goal of this project is to quantify riparian evapotranspiration (ET) by utilzing satellite and air-borne remote sensing data on selected watersheds in the North Platte River. The results will be used to develop guidelines on riparian water use.
Project Support UNL Office of Research Layman Award
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Efting, Aris
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email aefting@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-3471
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=226
Project Information
Title Determining Toxic Algal Bloom Frequency in Nebraska Lakes
Description Research has been conducted in the Sandhills to determine whether or not there has been an increase in toxic algal blooms. Four different lakes were cored to identify the lakes' history of toxic algal blooms and determine whether there is an increase in toxin concentrations post 1950.
Project Support Layman Fund
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Wedin, Dave
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email dwedin1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-9608
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=128
Project Information
Title Sand Hills Biocomplexity Project
Other(s) Vitaly Zlotnik, Department of Geosciences, vzlotnik1@unl.edu. 
Description

The Sand Hills, the largest sand dune area in the Western Hemisphere, is now stabalized by native grasses. This was not always the case. The Sand Hills have mobilized several times over the last 10,550 years. Major droughts destabilized significant portions of the Sand Hills as recently as 1000 years ago. The stability of the Sand Hills affects not only hundreds of cattle ranches, but also the recharge of the High Plains Aquifer. Of the total groundwater stored in this vast aquifer, 65% occurs in Nebraska and over half of that lies under the Sand Hills. The groundwater connection is obvious throughout the region. Due to the high water table, interdunal valleys in portions of the Sand Hills contain extensive complexes of lakes, wetlands, and naturally sub-irrigated wet meadows, which together cover over 10% of the landscape.

The Sand Hills Biocomplexity Project is a major federal project led by Professor Wedin. The project is aimed at testing whether:

  1. Evapotranspiration (ET) from wet valleys buffers the impacts of short-term drought on upland grasslands through local climate feedbacks. (resistance stability)
  2. When wetlands go dry, the combined effect of lost upland grass cover and lost wetland ET creates a desertification feedback that amplifies drought impacts.
  3. Since subregions of the Sand Hills differ in their extent of interdunal wetlands, subregions respond differently to paleo and historic droughts, thus enabling landowners to prepare for future droughts.
  4. Increased groundwater recharge when dunes are bare hastens the rise of groundwater levels, which, together with the rapid recovery of warm season grasses, restabilizes the dunes. (resilience stability)

The project's Grassland Destabilization Experiment (GDEX) is studying what happens to a Sand Hills dune when the vegetation dies. Researchers have created 10 circular plots at the Barta Brothers Ranch, each 120 meters in diameter, and used herbicide to kill all the vegetation on several of them. The plots are kept clear of vegetation, so that information on vegetation coverage, root mass, soil organic matter, and sand movement may be monitored and recorded to determine the stability of the plots. Results indicate that the Sand Hills may be more stable than previously thought; that is, ersosion is just starting to occur were vegetation was killed two years ago. Additional studies are needed to determine what happens when sand dunes become mobile.

As a part of this project, Professor Vitaly Zlotnik carries out research on groundwater recharge, hydraulic properties of the dune cover, and the climate change effects on groundwater recharge.

Project Support National Science Foundation
Project Website http://sandhills-biocomplexity.unl.edu/
Report
Current Status n/a
Topic Survey
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Joseph Hamm
Unit jhamm2@nebraska.edu
Phone 402-472-5678
Web Page http://ppc.unl.edu/
Project Information
Title Platte River Habitat Partnership Survey
Other(s) Lisa Pytlik Zillig, Public Policy Center, lpytlikz@nebraska.edu, Alan Tomking, Public Policy Center, atomkins@nebraska.edu 
Description

Nebraska’s native prairies are a valued resource and under constant anthropogenic demand and degradation. By engaging land owners in voluntary programs, the Platte River Habitat Partnership aims to restore and enhance this important natural resource. In this project, the Public Policy Center conducted a survey to assess land owners’ perceptions of the Platte River Habitat Partnership to help direct the Partnership’s second phase. Specifically, land owners who live in the region covered by the Partnership but did not participate, and those that did participate in the Partnership were surveyed in order to answer four key questions: 1. How knowledgeable are these land owners about the Partnership? 2. What is the nature of these land owners’ interactions with the Partnership? 3. How is the Partnership itself generally perceived by these land owners? 4. What would encourage land owners who had not participated in the Partnership to participate?

Project Support The Nature Conservancy
Project Website http://ppc.unl.edu/project/PlatteRiverHabitatPartnershipSurvey
Report PRHP_Report.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Wastewater
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon
Unit Civil Engineering
Email sbartelt2@unl.edu
Phone 402-554-3868
Web Page http://www.engineering.unl.edu/civil/faculty/ShannonBartelt-Hunt.shtml
Project Information
Title The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska
Other(s) Daniel D. Snow, School of Natural Resources, dsnow1@unl.edu; Teyona Damon; Johnette Shockley; Kyle Hoagland, School of Natural Resources, khoagland1@unl.edu 
Description The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at Lincoln, Grand Island, and Columbus, downstream of Hastings' WWTP discharge, and from Omaha's effluent channel just prior to it being discharged into the Missouri River. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7 - dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent.
Project Support n/a
Project Website
Report Bartelt-Hunt_Wastewater.pdf
Current Status Published in Environmental Pollution 2009 157:786-791
Topic Wastewater
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Woldt, Wayne
Unit Southeast Research and Extension Center
Email wwoldt1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-8656
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/wwoldt1
Project Information
Title Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Certification Training and Education Project
Other(s) Jan Hyngstrom, Biological Systems Engineering, jhygnstrom1@unl.edu; Sharon Skipton, Southeast Research and Extension Center, sskipton1@unl.edu 
Description

The goal of this project is to enable onsite wastewater treatment system professionals to apply science-based onsite wastewater design, installation, and maintenance practices and thereby protect water resources and human health. As of December 31, 2005, onsite professionals must pass exams to be certified pumpers, installers, and/or inspectors in the state of Nebraska. In-depth curriculum for Nebraska onsite wastewater system installers, inspectors and pumpers was developed to address this issue. The curriculum helps individuals prepare for exams, as well as help professionals apply science-based practices to protect water resources.

During 2005 and 2006, UNL Extension had 733 educational training contacts. Knowledge and competency was demonstrated by 86 percent passing their exam(s). Results from a follow-up survey of 460 of those who had attended training indicated pumpers (90%), installers (99%) and inspectors (100%) increased knowledge. Pumpers (76%), installers (71%), and inspectors (90%) reported they had made practices changes which would result in water quality and human health being better protected.

Certification training continues on an annual basis and new curriculum is being developed for advanced alternative treatment systems. These systems can achieve greater water quality protection in vulnerable areas including those with high groundwater levels and/or sandy soils. Merrick, Hall, and Hamilton Counties have geographic areas of high risk from traditional onsite wastewater treatment systems due to these factors. Alternative systems could greatly reduce the risk of water quality degradation from nitrate and other contaminants in these areas.

Educational materials have also been developed and delivered for homeowners with onsite systems. The goal is to empower rural homeowners to protect water resources and human health through application of science-based onsite system maintenance and operation practices. Training was delivered in Grand Island and to 50 residents with onsite systems at Turtle Beach near Central City.

Project Support Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, Nebraska Onsite Waste Water Association
Project Website http://water.unl.edu/web/sewage/home
Report
Current Status Continuous
Topic Water Quality
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Chen, Xun-Hong
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email xchen2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-0772
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=19
Project Information
Title Distribution Patterns of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Groundwater
Other(s) Fujiang Wen, Doctoral Candidate in the School of Natural Resources, fwen314@yahoo.com 
Description

This paper evaluated spatial patterns of nitrate-nitrogen contamination of groundwater in the High Plains Aquifer in the area of Dawson, Buffalo and Hall counties in the South-Central Platte River Valley of Nebraska. Geostatistical approaches including ordinary kriging, indicator kriging and cokriging, were used to analyze 1514 samples drawn from 465 irrigation wells over a 30-year period. The spatial trends of the nitrate-N concentration suggested that about one third of the aquifer in the area had been contaminated by nitrate-N above a level of 5 ppm.

The small areas along with the South-Central Platte River Valley were classified as high risk with the nitrate-N level above 10 ppm. The probabilistic maps exceeding thresholds (10 and 5 ppm) for the nitrate-N concentrations of the groundwater were created to assess vulnerability. The areas with the nitrate-N levels exceeding 10 ppm at an extremely high risk (>75%) were delineated for the future nitrate priority areas of management. Temporal trends of the nitrate-N contamination at 465 sampling locations were analyzed for a period of 30 years. Thirty-seven (37) sampling wells, accounting for 8.0% of the total sampling wells, were identified with an increasing trend, in which the maximum increase was estimated at 4.20 ppm per five-year. Twenty-nine (29) wells were identified with a decreasing trend, in which the average decrease was 0.48 ppm per five-year. It was concluded that the groundwater nitrate-N contamination in some areas, such as the middle area of Buffalo County, was improving, but was worsening in other areas, such as the middle portion of Hall County and the south-eastern corner of Buffalo County. It was found that groundwater irrigation level (or well density) has a positive correlation with high concentration of nitrate-N.

Project Support Central Platte Natural Resources District
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Water Quality
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Dvorak, Bruce
Unit Civil Engineering
Email bdvorak1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-3431
Web Page http://www.engineering.unl.edu/civil/faculty/BruceDvorak.shtml
Project Information
Title Arsenic and Uranium in Drinking Water Training and Education Project
Other(s) Wayne Woldt, Biological Systems Engineering, wwoldt1@unl.edu; Sharon Skipton, Southeast Research and Extension Center, sskipton1@unl.edu; Gina Rust 
Description

When new Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act standards for arsenic and uranium were enacted, 82 Nebraska public water supplies had arsenic concentrations above the maximum level allowed and 20 had uranium above the standard, including public water supplies in Hamilton, Hall, and Merrick counties. Since arsenic and uranium are naturally occurring in rocks and soil, private water supplies in these geographic areas could also be at risk of having elevated concentrations, possibly putting families at risk from chronic exposure.

A UNL Extension team with a drinking water focus developed and delivered training to UNL Extension faculty/staff in targeted areas at high risk for naturally occurring arsenic and/or uranium. Twelve training sessions were delivered in 2005 including training in Merrick and Hall Counties. Thirty-nine extension personnel with a focus or job description other than drinking water were trained, including 3 in Hall County and 3 in Merrick County. Participants increased their knowledge of the topic in order to work better with owners of private drinking-water wells in the high risk areas. Of those returning an evaluation, 92% strongly agreed or agreed their knowledge increased in regard to arsenic and uranium occurrence, risk, testing, and treatment. These faculty and staff have gone on to provide information and education at the local level to private well owners.

Training on arsenic and uranium in drinking water was delivered at the Nebraska Well Drillers Winter Short Course in 2006 and information on arsenic in drinking water was presented in 2007. Nearly 300 water well professionals attended in 2006 and approximately 250 attended in 2007. Seven percent of 2006 participants evaluating the program indicated the arsenic and uranium program was the best topic during the event, and 19% indicated they were interested in learning more about the topic. Participants indicated they would use the information gained to "spread knowledge on arsenic and uranium to pivot system owners," "educate/inform constituents, customers," "expand markets in arsenic and uranium testing," or "provide safer water."

UNL Extension also delivered training on arsenic and uranium in drinking water at a Professionals Seminar in 2006. Thirty-eight professionals attended. Several professionals involved stated that the focused three-hour presentation gave them an excellent overview of the pertinent design issues which communities and engineers should consider when selecting a method of dealing with high arsenic and uranium levels. They especially appreciated the mix of technical presentations with a panel discussion by community members, regulators, and local engineers.

Project Support Well Driller Training - Nebraska Well Drillers Association Professional Seminar - Nebraska Section of the American Water Works Association, Nebraska Health and Human Services System
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Water Quality
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Riens, John
Unit Wisconsin Ecological Services Field Office, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Email John_Riens@fws.gov
Phone 541-885-2503
Web Page http://www.fws.gov/
Project Information
Title Macroinvertebrate Response to Buffer Zone Quality in the Rainwater Basin Wetlands of Nebraska
Other(s) W. Wyatt Hoback, Biology UNK, hobackww@unk.edu; Matt Schwarz, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 
Description

The Rainwater Basin is one of the most endangered wetland ecosystems in North America. This ecosystem is critical to many species including migratory waterfowl. Land use and runnoff from agriculture and cattle confinement operations are likely to be reducing the basin's health and diversity, however little information exists concerning macroinvertebrates. Twenty-two locations were assessed for water quality parameters, vegetation composition, and macroinvertebrates identified to genus. Samples were collected biweekly starting in April through July for three years. Macroinvertebrate diversity was impacted in areas with little buffer although the effects were not pronounced. Institution of a more effective vegetative buffers strip may reverse this trend to improve ecosystem quality and provide for invertebrate resources for migratory birds.

Click here to see a poster about this research

Project Support n/a
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Water Quality
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Tang, Zhenghong
Unit Architecture
Email ztang2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-9281
Web Page http://architecture.unl.edu/people/bios/tang_zhenghong.shtml
Project Information
Title Assessment of Sedimentation and Water Quality Conditions in the Rainwater Basin's Playa Wetlands
Other(s) Mark Kuzila, School of Natural Resources, mkuzila1@unl.edu; Xu Li, Department of Civil Engineering, xuli@unl.edu; Amy Burgin, School of Natural Resources, aburgin2@unl.edu 
Description

The overall goal of this project is to prioritize watershed restoration/acquisition programs in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) by examining playa wetlands’ sedimentation and water quality conditions using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 (RUSLE2) and the fly ash technology.

Three specific tasks are included in this project:

  1. Calculate and map the sedimentation rates and the age of deposition for all playa wetlands in RWB
  2. Consolidate existing water quality data of the RWB playa wetlands and evaluate the key factors influencing playa wetland water quality
  3. Assess the effects of sedimentation control practices and prioritize future watershed restoration/acquisition programs

The final products of this project include:

  1. An atlas of wetland sedimentation maps and a risk report highlighting the areas in watersheds with the highest sedimentation rates
  2. A geodatabase and an evaluation report on the water quality conditions of the playa wetlands in the RWB
  3. A written assessment report for sedimentation control practices and a watershed index to prioritize future conservation/acquisition programs
Project Support U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Project Website http://www.unl.edu/playawetlands/
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Watershed Management
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Allen, John C.
Unit Agricultural Economics
Email jallen1@unl.edu
Phone 435-797-9732
Web Page
Project Information
Title Socio-Cultural Study of the Middle Platte River Region of Nebraska: Building Capacity for Community-Based Conservation
Description Telephone surveys, focus group interviews, and in-depth interviews were conducted in 1997 and community profiles developed in 1998 to provide an integrated picture of the social and cultural factors that influence how Middle Platte River residents and communities perceive the river; where their futures fit with the perceived best case scenarios; and the future they see for themselves, their family, and their community.
Project Support U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Project Website http://watercenter.unl.edu/PRS/PlatteRiverReports/Socio-Cultural%20Study%20of%20the%20Middle%20Platte%20River.pdf
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Watershed Management
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Jenkins, Allan
Unit Economics
Email
Phone
Web Page
Project Information
Title Middle Platte Socioeconomic Overview
Description This report was published in February 1999 and designed to provide a common body of knowledge to all groups engaged in decisions regarding the Platte River. Recognizing that different decision-makers have different levels of prior knowledge concerning the Platte River, the author attempted to create a document suitable for a range of audiences that also facilitated discussion.
Project Support U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Project Website http://watercenter.unl.edu/PRS/PlatteRiverReports/The%20Platte%20Watershed%20Program.pdf
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Wetlands
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Tang, Zhenghong
Unit Architecture
Email ztang2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-9281
Web Page http://architecture.unl.edu/people/bios/tang_zhenghong.shtml
Project Information
Title Developing LiDAR-Derived Wetland Maps To Assess Conservation Design Practices For Playa Wetlands In Rainwater Basin
Other(s) Ed Harvey, School of Natural Resources, feharvey1@unl.edu; Xu Li, Department of Civil Engineering 
Description The overall goal of this project is to provide wetland managers with topographically-correct 3-D wetland maps to prioritize wetland conservation efforts and assess wetland conservation design practices. This project addresses three specific tasks for the playa wetlands: 1) Establish accurate, topographically-correct, 3-D wetland maps to relate weather conditions and wetland functions; 2) Develop a measurable Restorable Wetland Index to prioritize playa wetland and drainages conservation; 3) Assess wetland conservation design practices for watershed-based wetland conservation. This research will use high-resolution Light Detections And Ranging (LiDAR) data to create next-generation wetland maps for playa wetlands. The research provides the missing link in conservation design as these data will provide accurate elevation measures to delineate watershed extent and determine the impact of individual hydrologic modifications. This project will be one of the first to integrate LiDAR data and a hydrologic modifications datasets to find the relations of current weather conditions and wetland functions. This project provides reliable, accurate wetland spatial parameters to prioritize playa wetland conservation and assess the effectiveness of existing wetland conservation design practices. The wetland conservation design tools and protocols will be examined in two pilot counties in Nebraska. The intellectual merit of the research is based on advancing knowledge linkage of wetland mapping technologies and wetland function modifications, and showing how to adapt wetland conservation designs. The outputs from this project provide practical protocols for state/regional/local wetland managers and thus ensure "no net loss" in quality and quantity of wetlands.
Project Support US EPA
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Wildlife
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Allen, Craig
Unit Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Email callen3@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-0229
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=647
Project Information
Title River Otter Home Range and Habitat Use
Other(s) Sam Wilson, School of Natural Resources, swilson5@yahoo.com; Amy Williams, School of Natural Resources, amy_ruth18@hotmail.com 
Description

River otters (Lontra canadensis) are native to Nebraska but were extirpated by the early 1900s. River otters became reestablished in Nebraska following their reintroduction in the mid 1980s and early 1990s by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. The species is currently listed as threatened in Nebraska. Despite the high profile of the reintroduction and the otters' role as a flagship species, relatively little is known about river otter ecology in Nebraska. In order to provide information for management, research was conducted to determine home range, habitat use, overnight movement distance, and annual survival of river otters in the central Platte River of Nebraska.

Eighteen river otters were trapped, implanted with telemetry transmitters, and tracked during 2006-2009. Researchers obtained 996 telemetry locations and constructed 13 annual home ranges. Male home ranges were larger than female home ranges. Habitat use was determined by comparing used versus available habitats using compositional analysis. Open water was used more than any other habitat type in all three comparisons tested.

Nineteen overnight movements were recorded (465 total telemetry locations) for four river otters during 2007-2008. Movements during January-February, when NGPC conducts winter bridge surveys, were lower than during the rest of the year. Annual survival was 100% as no river otter mortalities were detected during the study period.

River otters in the central Platte River select open water over other habitat types, exhibit reduced movements during winter months, and have high annual survival. This information will be used by NGPC to assess the status of river otters in Nebraska and direct management efforts for the species.

Project Support Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Project Website n/a
Report Wilson River Otter.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Wildlife
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Pegg, Mark
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email mpegg2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-6824
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=739
Project Information
Title Habitat Usage of Missouri River Paddlefish Project
Description Sediment from the Niobrara River has created a delta area near the headwaters of Lewis and Clark Lake, the reservoir formed by Gavins Point Dam on the Missouri River. This sediment aggregation has reduced reservoir volume and threatens to fill the reservoir; therefore, restoration of reservoir capacity has been proposed by means of high-velocity water releases from upstream mainstem dams. Biologists, however, have reported that this delta area may serve as spawning grounds for native fishes like paddlefish, and may provide suitable spawning habitat for federally endangered pallid sturgeon. This situation has created a unique paradox where information is needed to provide insight into fulfilling both the river management needs and biological needs in the Missouri River. This project will use paddlefish telemetry to study spawning success.

Click here to read Brenda Pracheil's dissertation on Paddlefish populations

Project Support Nebraska Environmental Trust
Project Website
Report Pracheil et al_Fisheries_2012.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Wildlife
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Pegg, Mark (advisor)
Unit Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Email mpegg2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-6824
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=739
Project Information
Title Catfish Population Dynamics in the Platte River, Nebraska
Other(s) Tony J. Barada, abarada2@unl.edu 
Description

Catfish angling is popular throughout the United States and catfish are the most sought after fish species in the Platte River. However, catfish management in the Platte River is minimal as little is known about current populations. The objective of this study was to determine the current status of channel catfish and flathead catfish populations in the central and lower Platte River. Specifically, the study evaluated population characteristics including relative abundance, size structure, condition, age, growth and mortality.

Channel catfish are much more abundant than flathead catfish in the Platte River. The current Platte River channel catfish population appears to be average, comparable to many Nebraska and Midwestern rivers. Population characteristics displayed considerable variation along the Platte River and some longitudinal patterns were evident. Channel catfish in the central Platte River had lower relative abundances, higher condition, greater size structure, faster growth and lower mortality compared to lower Platte River channel catfish. Key factors likely influencing differences in channel catfish population characteristics are prey availability, flow modifications, habitat characteristics, tributary inflows and angler exploitation. Water manipulations from the Loup River Power Canal were also identified as a possible negative influence on lower Platte River channel catfish populations because hydropeaking is likely creating a stressful environment. However, channel catfish in the central Platte River appear to have benefited from recent high flows that likely increased productivity and food availability in the central Platte River.

Tony Barada's Master's Thesis on Catfish Population Dynamics in the Platte River

Project Support Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Federal Aid in Sportfish Restoration
Project Website
Report
Current Status Graduate thesis project completed - thesis available at UNL CY Thompson Library (Call # LD3656 2009 .B373)
Topic Wildlife
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Vivian, Lindsay A.
Unit Biology, UNK
Email lindsayviv@gmail.com
Phone 308-379-4587
Web Page
Project Information
Title Updating the Distribution and Population Status of the Platte River Caddisfly
Other(s) W. Wyatt Hoback, Biology UNK, hobackww@unk.edu 
Description The Platte River caddisfly, Ironoquia plattensis, was first described in 1999 from a warm water slough just south of Grand Island, NE. Using a benthic core sampling method, the investigators reported an average caddisfly larval density of 805 ± 194/m2. In 2004, there were no Platte River caddisflies observed at the 1999 study site. Ironoquia plattensis has been observed at five other locations in the central Platte region, but only two of the six historic populations are considered stable. Between 2002 and 2005, central Nebraska suffered an extensive drought, which could have taken its toll on the caddisfly. The sloughs where Ironoquia plattensis occur are typically wet nine months out of the year and dry during the summer. During the summer of 2009, four historic sites and one new, previously unrecorded site were sampled for larvae using a 30 cm D-frame net to sample a one meter swath a minimum of four times from each location. Using a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) predictive model and Google Earth, additional areas are being surveyed for the presence of the Platte River Caddisfly. The GIS model was created using local groundwater data from 1999 to the present, a soils layer, high resolution imagery, and a vegetation map analysis. If more populations are found, transects will be set up on the slough banks, and a quadrat will be used to quantify larval abundance in these areas. This will also be done at all historic locations. The goal is to establish the population status of this very rare insect of Nebraska which is adapted to the seasonal flows of the Platte River.

Lindsay Vivian's Master's Thesis on Platte River Caddisfly

For more information, read this journal article in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America

Project Support US Fish and Wildlife Service
Project Website
Report
Current Status In progress