NU Water-Related Research in District 48

The list below shows water-related research being conducted within your district or that affects your district. They are sorted by water topic, then by primary contact's last name.

Displaying 25 records found for District 48


Topic Crop Nutrient Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Wortmann, Charles
Unit Agronomy and Horticulture
Email cwortmann2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-2909
Web Page http://agronomy.unl.edu/wortmann
Project Information
Title Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Irrigated Corn for Three Cropping Systems in Nebraska
Other(s) Charles Shapiro, Agronomy & Horticulture, cshapiro@unl.edu; Richard Ferguson, Agronomy & Horticulture, rferguson1@unl.edu; Gary Hergert, Panhandle Research & Extension Center, ghergert1@unl.edu 
Description

Overview Nitrogen fertilizer will continue to be indispensible for meeting global food, feed, and fiber needs. Voroneyand Derry (2008) estimated that 340 million Mg yr-1 N is fixed by natural means, including lightning and biological N fixation, and 105 million Mg yr-1 is fixed by human activities, including burning of fossil fuels and N fertilizer production, with N fixation by human activities expected to continue to increase. Townsend and Howarth (2010) estimated the amount of N fixed by human activities to be about 180 million Mg yr-1, with most used as mineral fertilizer. Fertilizer N production has important environmental implications with an average of ~2.55 kg CO2 emitted per kg fertilizer N fixed and transported (Liska et al., 2009). Th e amount of N applied is associated with emission of N2O (IPCC–OECD, 1997) and N accumulation in sensitive aquatic, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems (Groffman, 2008; Malakoff , 1998). Th e challenge is to produce more grain to meet growing global needs with high NUE.

Conclusions Across diverse production environments, high corn yields can be achieved with efficient use of soil and applied N and without high risk of NO3 -N leaching to groundwater. With excellent farm management, recovery of applied fertilizer-N in high-yielding corn fields of Nebraska was well above 60 to 70% at the economically optimal nitrogen rate (EONR), resulting in low residual soil nitrate nitrogen (RSN) levels. Agronomic efficiency and crop partial factor productivity (PFP), the Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) components most closely related to profitability of production, can also be high at EONR. Less preplant and more in-season N application may be especially important for drybean (CD) which had low recovery efficiency (RE) and much postharvest RSN compared with corn (CC) and soybean (CS). The levels of NUE achieved in our study for CC and CS far exceed current national or regional means, demonstrating the potential for high NUE with high yield corn production. Further NUE efficiency may be gained through more accurate in-season N application such as with use of the presidedress NO3 test (Andraski and Bundy, 2002) and spatial variation in N rate in response to variation in crop need, such as through use of reflectance sensors (Scharf and Lory, 2009; Barker and Sawyer, 2010; Roberts et al., 2010).

Project Support Nebraska State Legislature, Nebraska Agricultural Business Association
Project Website
Report Wortmann_NUE.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Cassman, Ken
Unit Agronomy and Horticulture
Email kcassman1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-5554
Web Page http://agronomy.unl.edu/cassman
Project Information
Title Real-time Decision Support System for Deficit Irrigation - Hybrid-Maize
Other(s)  
Description

Hybrid-Maize is a computer program that simulates the growth of a corn crop under non-limiting or water-limited (rainfed or irrigated) conditions based on daily weather data. Specifically, it allows the user to:

  • assess the overall site yield potential and its variability based on historical weather data
  • evaluate changes in attainable yield using different combinations of planting date, hybrid maturity, and plant density
  • explore options for optimal irrigation management
  • conduct in-season simulations to evaluate actual growth up to the current date based on real-time weather data, and to forecast final yield scenarios based on historical weather data for the remainder of the growing season

Hybrid-Maize does NOT allow assessment of different options for nutrient management nor does it account for yield losses due to weeds, insects, diseases, lodging, and other stresses. Hybrid-Maize has been evaluated primarily in rainfed and irrigated maize systems of the U.S. Corn Belt. Caution should be exercised when applying this model to other environments as this may require changes in some of the default model parameters.

This project will develop a similar tool for irrigation scheduling for Nebraska soybean producers, and a real-time decision support system for deficit irrigation on corn, both based upon the Hybrid-Maize model. These tools will assist producers who have limited irrigation water supplies to optimize irrigation scheduling in real time for maximum yields, in particular during water-short years.

Project Support Nebraska Natural Resources Conservation Service, Nebraska Soybean Board
Project Website http://hybridmaize.unl.edu/
Report
Current Status Continuing - Software Available
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title No-till Cropping Systems for Stretching Limited Irrigation Supplies
Other(s) Paul Burgener, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, pburgener2@unl.edu; Alexander Pavlista, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, apavlista1@unl.edu 
Description

A no-till limited irrigated cropping system for stretching limited irrigation supplies, including winter wheat, corn, dry beans and canola, was initiated in 2005 at the Panhandle Research and Extension Center. Under limited irrigation, less water is applied than is required to meet full evapotranspiration demand and the crop is stressed. Irrigation levels are 5, 10 and 15 inches for corn and 4, 8 and 12 inches for all other crops The goal is to manage cultural practices and irrigation timing so the resulting water stress has less of a negative impact on grain yield. The objectives of the project are to: 1) develop limited irrigation production functions for lower water-using crops that fit the panhandle using a no-tillage cropping system to maximize water use efficiency; and 2) use production function data to develop economic information on the impact of reduced water on farm income and effects on local government and agricultural businesses. The research information is necessary to provide an on-going information base to support demonstration efforts similar to the current project in the Pumpkin Creek Watershed.

Project Support North Platte Natural Resources District
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Irmak, Suat
Unit Biological Systems Engineering
Email sirmak2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-4865
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/sirmak2
Project Information
Title A Decision Support Tool to Increase Energy and Crop Water Use Efficiency for Corn and Soybean Production
Description

Energy costs coupled with limitations in water availability are threatening the sustainability of irrigation in the state. Energy costs for irrigation rose almost 100 percent for typical Nebraska irrigators from the spring of 2003 to the summer of 2006 and continue to rise sharply. The rising cost of fuel and the limited availability of water make producing maximum crop yield with minimal input imperative.

Nebraska growers need scientifically based and practical management strategies that can aid them in their decision-making process to enhance crop water-use efficiency and reduce energy use to achieve maximum profitability. Growers are looking for answers on how to make a maximum use of limited irrigation water and how to manage irrigation water to reduce pumping cost.

Crop simulation models with the capability of "real-time" assessment of crop and soil water status and yield prediction based on historical climate data represent a powerful new tool to help improve irrigation decisions and increase water-use efficiency especially for situations where the amount of available water supply is less than the full requirement for maximum crop yield. This project validates and demonstrates a decision-support tool for a real-time irrigation scheduling period, and releases the new tool as a software program for use by crop producers, crop consultants, and industry professionals. This tool will be used to assess energy requirement for different irrigation regimes to aid growers and state and federal agencies to make better-informed management decisions.

Project Support Upper Big Blue Natural Resources District, Gard Fund
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Irmak, Suat
Unit Biological Systems Engineering
Email sirmak2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-4865
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/sirmak2
Project Information
Title Nebraska Agricultural Water Management Demonstration Network
Other(s) Gary Zoubek, York County Extension, gzoubek@unl.edu 
Description

The Nebraska Agricultural Water Management Demonstration Network (NAWMDN) encourages the adoption of newer technologies that will enable farmers to use water and energy resources associated with irrigated crop production efficiently. NAWMDN launched in 2005 and started with 20 growers from south central Nebraska who joined the Network as collaborators. In 2008 an online tool named ETgage was added to enable participation by growers throughout Nebraska.

The NAWMDN ETgage project is one part of a system for testing cutting-edge technologies and creating a network with growers, UNL Extension, NRDs, NRCS, and crop consultants, and other interested partners, that will enable the adoption of water and energy conservation practices. The simplicity of the use and interpretation of the ETgage data, as well as its economic feasibility, makes it easy for farmers to monitor crop water use for effective irrigation management. In this project ETgages are used to estimate crop water use, and Watermark sensors are used to measure soil moisture to determine irrigation timing and amount. Each year, NAWMDN team members organize educational meetings during the growing season and over the winter to implement the project, teach participants how to use the ETgage and Watermark sensors for irrigation management, review the results, set goals, and obtain grower feedback. This project has been reported at local, regional, and national meetings.

In 2005, there were 18 demonstration sites. Some of the ETgage and Watermark sensors were read by growers and some were read weekly by Network core members. In 2006, the second year of the project, there were more than 50 demonstration sites. In 2007 more than 125 cooperators in nine NRDs and 22 counties were involved. In the fall of 2007, 89 producers involved in the NAWMDN were surveyed; of those 56% responding, the estimated corn water savings varied from 0-7.5" with an average savings of 2.6," while soybeans water savings varied from 0-4.8" with an average of 2.1." Using 2007 diesel prices, this resulted in total energy savings of $2,808,000 and $2,269,800 for corn or soybeans over 117,000 acres.

In 2008 over 300 active participants from 25 counties in 9 of Nebraska's 23 NRDs. An interactive web site was also created to inform growers and other clients about the network and to educate producers and industry professionals about using these two tools along with crop stage of growth information to make irrigation management decisions. This interactive web site has engaged the cooperating producers and enhanced learning. The site consists of a map of Nebraska's 93 counties on which producers can select specific counties to find a Google gps map with ETgauge locations marked. Producers can click on specific sites to see the weekly reference evapoptranspiration (ET) reported by producers. The site also includes information about the NAWMDN and how to use the various tools.

For detailed information, see Nebraska Agricultural Water Management Demonstration Network: Integrating Research and Extension/Outreach.

Project Support Partners include personnel from 19 extension offices, the Little Blue NRD, the Upper Big Blue NRD, Nebraska Association of Resources Districts, Nebraska Natural Resources Conservation Service, South Central Agricultural Laboratory, and the Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District.
Project Website http://water.unl.edu/cropswater/nawmdn
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Martin, Derrel
Unit Biological Systems Engineering
Email dmartin1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-1586
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/dmartin2
Project Information
Title Enhancing Irrigation Management Tools and Developing a Decision System for Managing Limited Irrigation Supplies - Enhancing The Water Optimizer
Other(s) Chris Thompson, Agricultural Economics, cthompson2@unl.edu; Paul Burgener, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, pburgener2@unl.edu; Ray Supalla, Agricultural Economics, rsupalla1@unl.edu; Gary Hergert, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, ghergert1@unl.edu 
Description

The Water Optimizer is a computer model developed in response to several years of drought across the state and to farmers facing water restrictions. The model can be used by producers to evaluate management options when water is limiting due to drought or regulations; it can also be used by water planners or policy makers who wish to estimate the farm-level economic consequences of retiring acres or regulating the water supply. Released by UNL in 2005, the model is available for all counties in Nebraska to evaluate single fields for several crop options. Irrigated crops include: corn, soybeans, sorghum, wheat, alfalfa, edible beans and sunflowers. Dryland crops include: corn, soybeans, sorghum, sunflowers, alfalfa and wheat in continuous, summer fallow and eco-fallow rotations. Producers put information into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, including soil type and irrigation system options. Irrigation options include center pivot or gravity irrigation systems, well or canal delivery, and systems powered by electricity, diesel or natural gas. After entering this basic information, producers enter their production costs, irrigation costs, crop prices, crop type and available water. After these parameters have been set, the program calculates what crops will be most profitable with the given costs and available water. This gives the producer a "whole farm view" in considering how to manage available water supplies.

While the Water Optimizer is useful, it is limited in that it considers economic choices and consequences one field (well) and one year at a time. Three different departments (Agronomy-Horticulture, Agricultural Economics and Biological Systems Engineering) will combine their expertise to develop information to enhance Water Optimizer by: 1) improving the tool's function for crops grown in the semiarid High Plains, including canola, camelina, chickpeas, dry beans and sunflowers; 2) expanding the tool's geographic coverage area to additional counties in Nebraska including irrigated areas in Colorado and Kansas; 3) developing the capability to evaluate risk-management alternatives on a whole-farm basis as well as field by field; and 4) developing the capability to determine the best strategies for managing multi-year water allocations. The benefits of this project will be to maintain profitability and sustain farming enterprises with a limited irrigation supply. The goal is to conduct educational programming in conjunction with the project to encourage other producers to implement practices and concepts demonstrated in this project. An additional outcome will be transferring this information to other areas of declining ground water or surface water.

The Water Optimizer tool was developed to assist in addressing water shortages created by drought and interstate water rights litigation. The current model released November 2010, supports all 93 Nebraska counties.

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture Risk Management Agency
Project Website http://agecon.unl.edu/wateroptimizer
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Crop Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Yonts, C. Dean
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email cyonts1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1246
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/faculty33
Project Information
Title Development of season long deficit irrigation strategies for sugarbeets
Description Drought continues to limit the amount of surface water that is available for irrigation throughout the Western Sugar Cooperative growing region. In some cases, growers must choose which fields or crops to irrigate because adequate water is not available. Restrictions on ground water pumping and the lack of surface water due to drought make it necessary to use available water supplies both effectively and efficiently. A research project is being conducted at Scottsbluff using sprinkler irrigation. The experiment is designed to observe the impact of water stress by comparing crop yield from nine different levels of irrigation. Irrigation treatments range from irrigation to no irrigation during the growing season.
Project Support Western Sugar Cooperative Grower Research Committee
Project Website
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Economics
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Johnson, Bruce
Unit Agricultural Economics
Email bjohnson2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-1794
Web Page http://www.agecon.unl.edu/facultystaff/Specialization/bjohnson.html
Project Information
Title Farm Real Estate Ownership Transfer Patterns in Nebraska's Panhandle Region
Other(s) Dennis M. Conley, Center for Applied Rural Innovation, dconley1@unl.edu; Gibson Nene, Ag Economics, gnene1@bigred.unl.edu; Patrick L. Krepel 
Description

The purpose of this study was to review and analyze the entire universe of relatively recent agricultural real estate activity in the multi-county, Panhandle Region of Nebraska. This region - Banner, Box Butte, Cheyenne, Dawes, Deuel, Garden, Kimball, Morrill, Scotts Bluff, Sheridan, and Sioux counties - was chosen because of the widely-held perception that a considerable number of acquisitions in recent years were by absentee owners. By investigating all recorded agricultural land transfers (filed in public records) for the period 2003 through the first half of 2006, we were able to identify the true characteristics of the market and analyze the associated implications.

This multi-year study of the market for agricultural real estate properties in the Nebraska Panhandle region provides a solid perspective of the market. Among the key findings were:

  • The rate of ownership turnover of agricultural holdings in the Nebraska Panhandle region is very thin, averaging less than 2 percent per year over the study period.
  • Out-of-state buyers have a strong presence in the agricultural land market of the region, acquiring more than half of the transferred agricultural land.
  • While out-of-state market participants were quite active on the buyer side of the market, they were also quite active on the seller side of the market. In fact, for every10 acres purchased by this group, they sold nearly 13 acres; thus leading to a net decrease in this group’s holdings of some 70,000 acres (equivalent to about one percent of the region’s total agricultural base). In short, there is no evidence to suggest a major shift in land tenure towards out-of-state owners.
  • There are a variety of reasons for acquiring agricultural land, and this was certainly in evidence in this study. Moreover, the primary reasons tended to show marked differences across the buyer classes. Among the out-of-state buyer group, investment was reported as the primary reason for purchase. In contrast, local buyers most frequently reported expansion (of existing property holdings) as their primary motive.
  • The overall dynamics of the market for agricultural real estate in the Panhandle area of the state show eclectic market conditions - markets no longer limited to local participants, but, instead, markets with a heavy presence of individuals from around the region and state and beyond. In turn, the motivations for buying and selling in the current market environment are highly variable, and are likely to remain so.
Project Support University of Nebraska Rural Initiative
Project Website http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/ruralinitiativepubs/6/
Report Johnson Farm Real Estate.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://www.panhandle.unl.edu/personnel/personnel_hergert.htm
Project Information
Title Improving Nitrogen Management for White Wheat
Description

Winter wheat, long a mainstay of dryland agriculture in the Panhandle, is being grown on a growing number of irrigated fields because it will grow under limited irrigation and wheat prices have risen to cover irrigation costs. Nonetheless, limited irrigation and increasing fertilizer prices mean producers need to sharpen their management skills. Research is proving that soil testing, timing fertilizer applications and managing application rates are all very important to growing winter wheat.

Preliminary data from this research shows top yields come when one third of the fertilizer is applied in the fall and two-thirds at boot stage. Maximum yields have been produced when the amount of residual nitrogen in the top four feet of soil, along with the applied fertilizer, totals 200-210 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Top nitrogen rates to maximize yield have not been higher than 100 pounds per acre, which is lower than commonly used to produce high yields. These recommendations for white wheat should also apply to hard red wheat.

Project Support Nebraska Wheat Board
Project Website
Report
Current Status Underway
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title Consumptive Water Use Maps for the Nebraska Panhandle
Other(s) Ayse Irmak, School of Natural Resources, airmak2@unl.edu; Derrel Martin, Biological Systems Engineering, dmartin1@unl.edu; Gary Stone, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, gstone2@unl.edu 
Description

The use of ground water, especially for irrigation, is becominng regulated in Nebraska, in response to several factors:

  • Recurrent droughts across the High Plains and Inter-Mountain West have magnified the problem of declining ground water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA), often referred to as the Ogallala aquifer, underlies Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Nearly 30% of the ground water used for irrigation in the United States is extracted from the HPA. A significant proportion of the aquifer underlies Nebraska. In the North Platte Basin, the drought has resulted in reduced surface water deliveries, which in turn has led to less ground water recharge and declining water tables.
  • Nebraska ground water law has evolved. Ground water levels began declining in some parts of Nebraska after extensive irrigation development began in the 1960s. LB108 in 1996 recognized the relationship between ground and surface water, and LB962 (2004) provided new regulatory measures for integrated management of ground water and surface water. Natural resources districts (NRDs) have adopted allocations for ground water pumping in some areas. The North Platte NRD has established ground water allocations of 12 acre-inches in the Pumpkin Creek Basin and 18 acre-inches in the North Platte Valley for 2009. New or expanded ground water uses are prohibited throughout the NRD unless they are offset with transfers of existing uses.

The goal of this project is to develop the expertise in remote sensing image acquisition and computing, using the METRIC(tm) procedure; to produce area-specific consumptive water use (CWU) maps; and to develop, test and demonstrate the tools that will take these CWU maps and turn them into immediately usable products for planning, managing and regulating groundwater. The CWU maps will be the primary product of this project. They are developed from LANDSAT images by applying Mapping EvapoTranspiration with High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC(tm)) algorithms.

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service
Project Website http://panhandle.unl.edu/web/panhandlerec/metric
Report
Current Status Website Available
Pic 1 Project Image
Pic Caption 1 Water level changes in the High Plains Aquifer from 1980 - 1994 
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title Limited Irrigation Cropping for Conserving Water Resources in the Pumpkin Creek Watershed
Other(s) Gary Stone, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, gstone2@unl.edu; C. Dean Yonts, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, cyonts1@unl.edu; Jim Schild, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, jschild1@unl.edu 
Description

Limited irrigation and no-till cropping systems are the focus of an extension project for the Pumpkin Creek Watershed which has a yearly NRD allocation of 12-inches for well irrigation. The project objectives are to: 1) demonstrate limited irrigation and no-tillage cropping systems to maximize groundwater supplies, and 2) educate area producers, local government and agricultural businesses about different management scenarios. Drought over the past eight years has magnified the problems associated with declining ground water in Pumpkin Creek and the High Plains Aquifer and maintaining profitable agriculture while protecting surface and ground water supplies is a complex issue. The demonstration project has shown producers that they can manage with less water, but they must adapt to new cropping and no-till systems and irrigation management techniques.

June 4, 2010 CropWatch Article

Project presentation by Gary Stone at the 2008 Water Colloquium

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service, North Platte Natural Resoruces District
Project Website http://panhandle.unl.edu/pumpkincreek
Report Pumpkin Creek Poster Resized 40 x 48 4-20-2010.pdf
Current Status Underway
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Hergert, Gary
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email ghergert1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1372
Web Page http://panhandle.unl.edu/personnel_hergert
Project Information
Title Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Other(s) Jim Schild, Interim Associate Director, jschild1@unl.edu; Steve Sibray, School of Natural Resources, ssibray1@unl.edu 
Description

The Panhandle Research and Extension Center, located in the heart of western Nebraska in Scottsbluff, houses 19 faculty with appointments in agriculture and family and consumer science through the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Most of the faculty hold joint appointments in research and extension. The Cooperative Extension program in a 17-county area of the Panhandle and north-central Nebraska is also administered at the Center.

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln has had a presence in western Nebraska for over 85 years. In 1909, the University of Nebraska Experiment Station and the USDA jointly homesteaded a quarter section of land five miles east of Mitchell. Initial research was in the area of crop production under gravity irrigation. Research emphasis increased and soon included studies in sheep, swine, dairy, and beef production, in addition to many other crop areas. The 800 acre Experimental Range in Sioux County was deeded to the University of Nebraska by President Woodrow Wilson in 1918. Satellite agricultural laboratories at Alliance and Sidney, Nebraska were added in 1967. Through a fortunate set of circumstances, the headquarters of the Panhandle Station moved to the former Hiram Scott College campus after the state had acquired the property after the school closed in the early 1970s. The headquarters and surrounding research plots are located just north of the city of Scottsbluff. To reflect the University's involvement throughout the Panhandle, the name was officially changed to the Panhandle Research and Extension Center in 1985. The addition of the Learning Center, a joint effort of the Division of Continuing Studies and Cooperative Extension, in 1987 significantly enhanced the educational opportunities for western Nebraska residents.

Project Support Varies according to program and project - for more information see http://www.panhandle.unl.edu
Project Website http://www.panhandle.unl.edu
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Extension
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Melvin, Steve
Unit West Central Research and Extension Center
Email smelvin1@unl.edu
Phone 308-367-4424
Web Page http://www.frontier.unl.edu/
Project Information
Title Irrigation Strategies Field Tour Series
Other(s) Bill Kranz, Northeast Research and Extension Center, wkranz1@unl.edu; Charles Shapiro, Northeast Research and Extension Center, cshapiro1@unl.edu; Simon Van Donk, West Central Research and Extension Center, svandonk2@unl.edu; Derrel Martin, Biological Systems Engineering, dmartin1@unl.edu 
Description

The 2009 Irrigation Strategies Field Tour Series will focus on showing farmers and crop consultants management strategies to conserve water.

The tour topics, which vary by location, include: Water Resource Update; Comparing Irrigation Energy Sources: Costs and Emissions Requirements; Monitoring Crop Water Use and Soil Moisture Status - Simple, Durable, Accurate, and Economical Tools; Water Savings with Crop Residue Management; How the Amount of Water and Nitrogen Applied with a Center Pivot Affects Crop Yield; How to Get the Most from Your Nitrogen Dollar; Where Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilization Fits into Corn Production; Variable Rate Irrigation Equipment for Center Pivots; Predicting the Last Irrigation; and How Time of Application and Amount of Water Applied Affects Crop Yield.

In 2008 eleven field demonstrations, with thirteen field tours at the sites, were conducted around the state to teach irrigation options specifically adapted for Nebraska crops, soils, and irrigation issues. No-till water savings were shown at the Curtis site and at the Ainsworth site, and a demonstration showed producers how nitrogen losses due to drainage taking soluble nitrogen below the root zone can be prevented with correct water application.

The farmers participating in 2008 reported managing an average of 1,067 acres of irrigated cropland per farm. The average reported value of the knowledge gained by the producers completing the survey was $22,215 per operation. If this average was extended to all of the 160 producers attending, the value of the education gained would be more than $3.55 million per year. The reported potential water savings of 2.2 acre-inches/acre by the farmers would be a 15-20% savings from the typical irrigation water usage and if extended to the average farm size, would be more than 31,300 acre-feet/year. The other 40 people attending the tours also reported substantial knowledge gains that will help save water and increase returns per acre. Their occupations ranged from crop consultants, agri-business representatives, government agency personnel, etc. The acre influence/manage ranged from none to over 100,000 acres. This variation makes it difficult to determine the impact of their involvement, but it is very significant as well. For example, just the eight people that listed the acres they manage/influence (38,875 acres on average) and the value of the knowledge gained ($18.78/acre on average) would result in over $5.84 million per year.

Nine of the eleven irrigation demonstration sites were in farmer fields in 2008, and two were located on the NCTA farm. The plot locations included sites near Alma, Gothenburg, Axtell, Edison, Loomis, Ainsworth, Imperial, Benkelman, Upland, and Curtis (two sites). Two sites (Curtis and Loomis) had line-source sprinkler systems installed to demonstrate irrigation strategies for corn. All sites had soil-moisture-monitoring equipment and ET gauges installed for use at the field tours and to allow the producers and crop consultants to work with the equipment. The Ainsworth site demonstrated the relationship between varying amounts of nitrogen on irrigated corn. The data generated from the sites will also be used for Extension programs in the future.

Project Support U.S. Department of Interior - Bureau of Reclamation
Project Website http://water.unl.edu/irrigationtournews
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Hydrology
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Rundquist, Donald
Unit Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies
Email drundquist1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-7536
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=103
Project Information
Title Nebraska Airborne Remote Sensing Program
Other(s) Rick Perk, CHAMP Project Manager, rperk1@unl.edu; Anatoly Gitelson, gitelson@calmit.unl.edu; Sunil Narumalani, sunil@calmit.unl.edu; Merlin Lawson, mlawson@calmit.unl.edu 
Description

CALMIT has joined forces with the UNL Department of Electrical Engineering and the UNO Aviation Institute to develop an aerial remote sensing research platform known as the Nebraska Airborne Remote Sensing Program (NARSP). A specially modified Piper Saratoga aircraft is being used as the base platform for deployment of a number of research grade remote sensing instruments. CALMIT's airborne remote sensing activities are centered around a suite of instruments associated with an AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. This specific program is identified as CALMIT Hyperspectral Aerial Monitoring Program (CHAMP).

This technology has contributed to several projects:

  • To determine the condition and monitor the changing quality of Nebraska's 2500+ lakes and ponds - funded by the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • To conduct a retrospective assessment of several different remote sensing platforms, with an emphasis on those remote sensing methods (e.g., airborne, Landsat, MODIS and MERIS) that most likely can be used for monitoring lakes routinely and operationally over a regional spatial extent - in collaboration with the North American Lake Management Society and the Universities of Minnesota and Wisconsin
  • To conduct remote sensing of coral communities.
  • To identify and delineate areas of noxious weeds and invasive species by using satellite imagery, hyperspectral aerial imagery, and GPS technology to aid in inventory surveys and mapping of these areas and assess the effectiveness of ongoing weed management actions.
  • To use airborne and satellite remote sensing systems to investigate and improve approaches to managing wheat streak mosaic (WSM), the most severe disease of winter wheat in the Great Plains.
Project Support Platform Development - National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; specific project support noted above when possible.
Project Website calmit.unl.edu/champ/index.php
Report
Current Status Continuous
Topic Invasive Species
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Allen, Craig
Unit Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Email callen3@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-0229
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=647
Project Information
Title Monitoring, Mapping and Risk Assessment for Non-Indigenous Invasive Species in Nebraska
Other(s) Karie Decker, Nebraska Invasive Species Project Coordinator, invasives@unl.edu 
Description

Biological invasions are a growing threat to both human enterprise and ecological systems. This project provides resources to the public and private sector on: 1) the potential spread and impact of non-indigenous species in Nebraska; 2) actual and potential maps of non-indigenous species range (habitat specific maps at high resolution); 3) information regarding identification and management of potential invaders; 4) centralized information on management and impacts and potential spread of currently established non-indigenous species (a web portal); and 5) outreach within Nebraska to county-level governments and individual stakeholders regarding the management, surveillance and control of non-indigenous species. On February 7-8, 2008 a conference on non-indigenous species impacts, spread and management was held, focusing on state-of-our-knowledge and coordination of disparate management and information-provisioning efforts with a goal towards unification of disparate efforts.

This project is meant to build momentum towards a cohesive non-indigenous species biosecurity and management system in Nebraska that is integrated and relatively seamless across institutional boundaries. Spatially - based risk assessments that focus on non-indigenous invasive species impacts on at - risk native species and communities in Nebraska have been initiated with funding from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. The results and predictive models generated by this project will be delivered and made widely available to policy makers, management practitioners and landowners in Nebraska. Additional general information about potential invasive species and their impacts will be made easily accessible. Most of the goals listed above will produce and disseminate products that are dynamic, with interactive elements for the public and managers, including mapping of habitat-specific current and potential distributions of invasive species as well as a portal through which the public can inform the entities responsible for management of invasive species occurrence and spread - and vice versa.

Project Support U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Nebraska Environmental Trust
Project Website http://snr.unl.edu/invasives
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Invasive Species
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Narumalani, Sunil
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email snarumalani1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-9842
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=85
Project Information
Title Predicting Potential Occurrence and Spread of Invasive Plant Species along the North Platte River, Nebraska
Other(s) Justin D. Hoffman; Deepak R. Mishra, University of New Orleans, dmishra@uno.edu; Paul Merani; Robert G. Wilson, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, rwilson1@unl.edu 
Description

Riparian habitats are important components of an ecosystem; however, their hydrology combined with anthropogenic effects facilitates the establishment and spread of invasive plant species. Researchers used a maximum-entropy predictive habitat model, MAXENT, to predict the distributions of five invasive plant species (Canada thistle, musk thistle, Russian olive, phragmites, and saltcedar) along the North Platte River in Nebraska. Projections for each species were highly accurate. Researchers studied a 1-mile wide buffer on either side of the North Platte River channel from the Wyoming-Nebraska state line to approximately 3.2 km west of North Platte. Field work was conducted in September 2005, March 2006, and May 2007.

Researchers found different distribution patterns among the species. Russian olive and thistles closely resembled each other in extent and variable contribution. While conducting field work, researchers repeatedly documented thistles below Russian olives or in close proximity. In addition, both species were commonly documented at varying distances from the river. Conversely, researchers found phragmites and saltcedar to have a more restricted potential distribution. Saltcedar was common throughout most of the study area except in the extreme eastern parts. The eastern edge of the study area approaches the distribution limit of saltcedar in Nebraska (Kaul et al. 2006; Wilson and Knezevic 2006). Phragmites was common in the eastern parts of the study area; however, there was low to no probability of phragmites occurrence in the west. Potential suitable habitat diminished just west of Lake MaConaughy, suggesting researchers have identified the western distributional limit of phragmites on the North Platte River and in Nebraska.

Variable contribution among all species was similar, with elevation and distance from river as the two most important variables for all species. The most probable underlying variable explaining the significance of distance from river is soil moisture. In most cases soil moisture will decrease as distance from river increases. Although soil moisture may be more directly responsible for the observed plant distributions, this variable is not easily estimated over large areas, unlike distance from river. There was a large disparity of elevation in the study area. The importance of elevation may be the result of the locations of the survey sites, underlying mechanistic variables, or both. Collection sites occurred at the elevational extremes. For Russian olive, thistle, and saltcedar, the lack of presence data at median elevations most likely caused MAXENT to weight that variable higher than others. The predictive model of phragmites also determined elevation to be the most important variable. Unlike the other species, no phragmites was documented at the western site. It is possible that phragmites can not survive at higher elevations because of colder temperatures found at these sites. However, Saltonstall (2002) found invasive haplotypes of phragmites occurring at high elevations in Wyoming and Utah, which does not support the previous hypothesis. A more likely explanation is that phragmities is in the process of expanding its range westward on the North Platte River and has not had enough time to disperse to the western parts of the river.

The results of this study have management implications for these species along the North Platte River, as well as other river ecosystems. For example, the variables used in this study resulted in excellent predictions of the distributions of invasive plants. As mentioned above, some of these variables (i.e., elevation and distance from river) may have underlying mechanistic factors that are more accurate measures of plant distributions. However, one of the utilities of the current approach is that these variables are easy to access and generate in a geographic information systems environment and useful predictions can be derived, which is not the case for some of their potential underlying factors. Also, predictive modeling shows limited areas of suitable habitat in the western parts of the North Platte River, primarily along the river channel. Researchers suggest that extensive monitoring be conducted in these areas to identify any populations that may occur there. Identification and control of these populations will significantly slow or stop the westward spread of phragmites. Also, any populations of phragmites that occur in the west should be relatively small and isolated making control of these populations more feasible. Similarly, abundances of saltcedar decreased in the eastern parts of the North Platte River. As with phragmites in the west, a control strategy should be used for saltcedar while populations are small and manageable. In addition, both species were found to occur close to the river bed, thus by monitoring the riverbanks and sandbars, the majority of populations could be identified within a very limited search area. Russian olive and thistles occur throughout the study area. Researchers suggest that control of these species should take place in areas with high probability of occurrence to prevent establishment of monotypic stands of each species.

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Project Website
Report Narumalani_Invasive.pdf
Current Status Published in Invasive Plant Science and Management 2008 1:359-367
Topic Invasive Species
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Narumalani, Sunil
Unit School of Natural Resources
Email snarumalani1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-9842
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=85
Project Information
Title Detecting and Mapping Four Invasive Species along the Floodplain of North Platte River, Nebraska
Other(s) Deepak R. Mishra, University of New Orleans, dmishra@uno.edu; Robert G. Wilson, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, rwilson1@unl.edu; Patrick Reece, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, preece1@unl.edu; Ann Kohler 
Description

This research focused on the dominant invasive plant species in Nebraska, including saltcedar, Russian olive, Canada thistle, and musk thistle. Once established, these invasive species can have several harmful effects, such as increasing (1) soil salinity, which reduces productivity of native plants and results in the loss of natural habitat (Pimentel et al. 2000); (2) soil water consumption to such an extent that it can dry up streams and reduce water levels of rivers and lakes (Friederici 1995); (3) risk of wildfires during summer (Brooks et al. 2004); and (4) chances of flooding during high-intensity rainfall by impeding stream flow (Zavaleta 2000).

The study area was a corridor approximately 1.6 km wide and 257 km long located along the North Platte River starting at the Wyoming/Nebraska border and ending at Kingsley Dam on Lake McConaughy. The elevation ranges from 1,244 m above sea level at the Wyoming/Nebraska state line to 943 m, in an area below Kingsley Dam. The Platte River is generally considered to be a braided river with a network of small channels separated by large and small islands and sandbars. It has been noted that historically the banks of the Platte River were rarely covered with trees but instead with grasses and sedges (Farrar 1983; Kuzelka et al. 1993). Some of the islands were wooded, and willows (Salix exigua) and cottonwood (Populus deltoids) trees were observed. In the 1930s, Russian olive was introduced into the region for conservation plantings. It has rapidly spread along the Platte River, replacing willows and cottonwoods. More recently, saltcedar has also invaded the study area from the west and, along with Russian olive, occupies riverbanks, sandbars, and islands. Saltcedar seedlings are tolerant of shade and thrive in a variety of soil and moisture conditions, but especially saline soils.

When examined from a comprehensive perspective for the entire study area (22 flight lines) from the Nebraska/Wyoming Border to Kingsley Dam, invasive plants covered an area of 139,632 ha, of which 1,965 hectares (2% of the total area) were identified as saltcedar and 1,478 hectares (1.1% of the total area) as Russian olive. The three mixed classes occupied approximately 5% of the total area. These numbers indicate the severity of invasion of nonnative species along the North Platte River. Nonnative species such as saltcedar have been known to consume large quantities of water, and because western Nebraska is frequently affected by drought, mapping and monitoring their spread along the river corridor can aid in the implementation of biological, mechanical, chemical, or some combination of these control mechanisms to minimize the effects on water resources.

Effective control and management of an invasive species begins with its detection and inventory. The ability to detect invasive plants with the use of remotely sensed data has improved with new sensors, enhanced technology (e.g., hyperspectral), and innovative image processing techniques. However, datasets that have the highest likelihood of detecting invasive plants come with high fiscal and technical considerations. When compared with low-resolution multispectral data, airborne hyperspectral data is most appropriate for detecting subtle changes in the reflectance properties of various vegetation species present in the landscape (Narumalani et al. 2006).

Project Support n/a
Project Website http://snr.unl.edu/invasives/file/northplatte_sunil_deepak.ppt
Report Narumalani_Platte.pdf
Current Status Published in Weed Technology 2009 23:99-107
Topic Livestock Manure Management
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Gilley, John E.
Unit Biological Systems Engineering
Email john.gilley@ars.usda.gov
Phone 402-472-2975
Web Page http://watercenter.unl.edu/FacultyProfiles/Pages/GilleyJohn.asp
Project Information
Title Long-term effects of manure application on soil properties and nutrient transport
Description

Manure can be effectively used for crop production and soil improvement because it contains nutrients and organic matter. Soil physical properties such as infiltration, aggregation, and bulk density can be improved by long-term manure application. Changes in soil properties can have a substantial impact on runoff, soil loss, and nutrient transport from cropland areas receiving long-term manure application. If the beneficial effects of long-term manure application can be quantified, its value as a nutrient source and soil amendment can be enhanced. However, the application of manure at rates that exceed crop nutrient requirements can result in phosphorus (P) accumulation in the soil and increased nutrient transport by overland flow. If the long-term effects of manure application on nutrient transport by overland flow can be estimated, remediation measures to minimize nutrient delivery to surface waters can be implemented.

The objectives of this project were to: 1) determine the long-term effects of manure application on selected soil properties, and 2) measure the effects of long-term manure application on nutrient transport by overland flow. Duplicate soil samples (32) were collected from the top 0.1 m of selected plots of a long-term (since 1953) manure and fertilizer application field experiment and later placed in 1m2 soil pans. Manure and fertilizer were mixed with 16 of the soil samples, while no manure was applied to the other 16 soil samples (long-term effect). Simulated rainfall was then applied to the soil during initial and wet (24 hours later) events. A second study was conducted to assemble and summarize historical information quantifying the effects of manure application on runoff and soil loss resulting from natural precipitation events. In a third study, composted beef cattle manure or inorganic fertilizer were added over a four-year period to meet P or nitrogen (N) requirements for corn and incorporated following application. Field tests were then conducted to identify the residual effects of compost applications on nutrients in runoff after four years of corn production following the last compost application.

The long term (since 1953) application of manure to a Tripp sandy loam soil located near Mitchell, Nebraska increased soil P, NO3-N, and EC levels in the top 0.1 m of the soil profile. After four years of corn production following the last N-based compost application to a Sharpsburg silty clay loam soil located near Mead, Nebraska, soil P content, EC, and pH were significantly greater than the check plots. For selected locations at which manure was added over several years, runoff was reduced from 2 to 62%, and soil loss decreased from 15 to 65% compared to non-manured sites. Runoff and soil loss values were reduced substantially as long-term manure application rates increased. The long-term application of manure had no significant effect on runoff concentrations of dissolved P, particulate P and total P when the last manure application was the previous year. When the last manure application was the previous year, similar concentrations of dissolved P, particulate P, and total P were measured on the manure and no-manure treatments. Four years following the last application of compost to meet P or N requirements for corn, concentrations and total amounts of P in runoff were similar on compost and inorganic fertilizer plots. The long-term application of manure at rates required to meet crop nutrient requirements did not increase P transport to levels greater than those occurring on inorganic fertilizer plots.

Project Support n/a
Project Website
Report
Current Status n/a
Topic Production Agriculture
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Supalla, Raymond
Unit Agricultural Economics
Email rsupalla1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-1792
Web Page http://agecon.unl.edu/supalla
Project Information
Title Economic and State Budget Cost of Reducing the Consumptive Use of Irrigation Water in the Platte and the Republican Basins
Other(s) Brian McMullen, Agricultural Economics, bmcmullen2@unl.edu 
Description

The terms of the Cooperative Agreement for the Platte Basin and the Supreme Court settlement decision for the Republican Basin both require that Nebraska reduce its consumptive use of irrigation water. This analysis evaluated the economic and the budgetary costs of meeting these requirements. Both the on-farm and off-farm costs were evaluated for both land retirement and water allocation programs, implemented in several different ways, over three alternative time periods, 10, 25 and 50 years.

The on-farm economic costs were defined as the change in net farm income associated with less irrigation. Off-farm economic costs were defined as the statewide change in household income resulting from changes in irrigation, as the effects ripple through the Nebraska economy. Budgetary costs were defined as the cost to the state budget (taxpayers) of policies which compensate irrigators for reducing consumptive use are implemented. Statewide economic costs were found to be lower for land retirement than for allocation programs, assuming the same total change in consumptive use. Total budgetary costs depended primarily on: where the irrigation reductions occurred (proximity to river); on how long the program was continued (number of years), and on whether irrigation was reduced voluntarily with incentives, or by regulation, or by some combination of regulation and incentives. It was found that policy makers could minimize the cost of reducing consumptive use from irrigation and augmenting stream flow by purchasing rather than leasing irrigation rights, by using a regulatory rather than a willing seller incentive approach, and by reducing irrigation at locations close to the river.

More on this research in a UNL Agricultural Economics working paper

Project Support n/a
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Production Agriculture
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Yonts, C. Dean
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email cyonts1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1246
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/faculty33
Project Information
Title Conserving soil water using a no-till system with a crop rotation of sugarbeets, dry beans and corn
Other(s) John A. Smith, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, jasmith@unlnotes.unl.edu 
Description Use of no-till production systems for sugarbeets and dry edible beans is very low in western Nebraska. On the other hand, a significant part of the corn acreage in this region does use no-tillage, or a practice that is very close to no-tillage. There are several real and perceived reasons for this difference in acreage of no-tillage productions systems between these crops. Reasons often given include difficulty of precision planting, need for mechanical incorporation of herbicides, multiple cultivations for weed control, furrowing for furrow irrigation and for guidance for harvest operations, providing a ridge for harvest of dry beans, and the "tillage-like actions" of harvest equipment. With the availability of glyphosate resistant corn and sugarbeets, weed control becomes substantially easier. The experiment is designed to observe two different crop rotations - corn, dry beans, corn, sugarbeets and corn, corn, drybeans. Tillage systems being tested include conventional plow, zone till and no till. The primary objective of this project is to determine the amount of soil water conserved by no-till crop production compared to current production practices with a crop rotation of sugarbeets, dry edible beans, and corn. The secondary purpose is to measure effectiveness of planting and weed control systems for no-till dry beans and sugarbeets, and direct harvest of no-till dry edible beans using the newest available production technologies.
Project Support Anna Elliott Fund
Project Website
Report
Current Status Continuing
Topic Production Agriculture
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Yonts, C. Dean
Unit Panhandle Research and Extension Center
Email cyonts1@unl.edu
Phone 308-632-1246
Web Page http://bse.unl.edu/faculty/Yonts.shtml
Project Information
Title Crop Management Workshop, August 20-21, 2008
Other(s) Jim Schild, jschild@unlnotes.unl.edu; John Smith, jasmith@unlnotes.unl.edu; Bob Wilson, rwilson@unlnotes.unl.edu; Carlos Urrea, currea2@unl.edu; Gary Hein, ghein@unlnotes.unl.edu; Gary Hergert, ghergert@unlnotes.unl.edu; and Bob Harveson, rharveso@unlnotes.unl.edu, Panhandle Research and Extension Center 
Description Crop management workshops are designed to assist the industry in gaining knowledge in production of crops grown in the Panhandle of Nebraska. Regional insurance adjusters from the High Plains region will be given training on dry edible bean production over a two day period in the following areas: effect of plant water stress, growth and development, soil compaction, harvesting, herbicide carryover, impact of drought, insect damage, nutrient requirements, disease management, crop adjustment procedures and quality adjustment factors.
Project Support National Crop Insurance Service
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Property Values
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Shultz, Steve
Unit UNO Real Estate Research Center
Email sshultz@mail.unomaha.edu
Phone 402-554-2810
Web Page http://cba.unomaha.edu/dir/HomePageBio.cfm?id=347
Project Information
Title Ongoing UNO/UNL Research on the Determinants of Agricultural Land Values: How Irrigation Contributes to Land Values in Western and Central Nebraska
Other(s) Nick Schmitz, UNO Real Estate Research Center 
Description

Hedonic (mass appraisal) land valuation models were estimated in the Republican and Platte watersheds of Central and Western Nebraska. These models are based on assumption that the buyers and sellers of agricultural land are able to accurately assess the value of irrigation when negotiating sale contract prices, and that irrigation equipment can be distinguished from land and irrigation values. Alternative models were estimated using various combinations of explanatory variables (all measured at the parcel level of analysis). These include: soil productivity measures, topography precipitation, parcel size, cropping patterns, topography, aquifer thickness, well pumping capacity, distances to elevators and towns, and irrigation systems.

The location of all agricultural land sales statewide (2000-2007) and estimated irrigation values in the Platte and Republican Watersheds were identified. Preliminary mass appraisal model results were summarized in tables and the locations of retired irrigation parcels in the Republican Watershed (as part of a 2006 NE DNR and USDA Pilot Program) were identified. The value of irrigated cropland is on average $615/acre (this is the value of irrigated cropland only and does not include the value dryland corners within pivot systems). As well, there are numerous areas and site-specific parcels within the watershed with both lower and higher irrigation values. In fact, we have calculated irrigation values for all of the natural resource districts in the Republican watershed: they range from $488/acre to $948/acre. These estimates are still considered 'preliminary' and may be subject to revision. These irrigation values also do not account for premiums above and beyond marginal market values that farmers and landowners will likely require to willingly participate in future irrigation retirement programs.

More on this research in a journal of the Western Agricultural Economics Association

Project Support U.S. Department of Agriculture Water and Watershed Program
Project Website
Report
Current Status Complete (up to 2007)
Topic Riparian Vegetation Water Use
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Kilic, Ayse
Unit Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies
Email akilic@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-5351
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=860
Project Information
Title Estimating Riparian Water Use: An Application of Remote Sensing
Description The goal of this project is to quantify riparian evapotranspiration (ET) by utilzing satellite and air-borne remote sensing data on selected watersheds in the North Platte River. The results will be used to develop guidelines on riparian water use.
Project Support UNL Office of Research Layman Award
Project Website
Report
Current Status Completed
Topic Sandhills Studies and Modeling
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Zlotnik, Vitaly
Unit Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Email vzlotnik1@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-2495
Web Page http://eas.unl.edu/people/faculty_page.php?lastname=Zlotnik&firstname=Vitaly&type=REG
Project Information
Title Variability in Lake Salinity in the Sand Hills
Other(s) John Lenters, School of Natural Resources, jlenters2@unl.edu; Collaborating institutions: Indiana University, Oklahoma State University, U.S. Geological Survey 
Description

This research explores variability in lake salinity in the Sand Hills, which is the largest vegetated sand dune field in the western hemisphere. Numerous lakes occur in topographic depressions under west-east regional groundwater flow. In Sheridan and Garden counties alone there are approximately 400 lakes with surface areas larger than 4 hectare. The concentration of total dissolved solids in lake water ranges from fresh to very saline (three times higher than the ocean salinity). At the same time, the groundwater is fresh. Although several hypotheses are available, causes of wide salinity variations within this large area have not been determined conclusively. Geographically, this project is focused on Crescent Lake National Refuge area and the vicinities.

Understanding salinization mechanisms will explain climate effects on lake salinity and the potential for their existence in the Sand Hills. In addition, results can be utilized for detection and prediction of the consequences of deposition of saline or contaminated water over shallow freshwater aquifers in environmental disasters, such as hurricanes (e.g., Mississippi and Louisiana, U.S., 2005), tsunamis (e.g., Indonesia, Bangladesh in 2005), and large-scale land salinization (e.g., Murray Basin, Australia).

Project Support National Science Foundation
Project Website
Report Sandhills_Salinity_Final_Report.pdf
Current Status Completed
Topic Wildlife
Project's Primary Contact Information
Name Pope, Kevin
Unit Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Email kpope2@unl.edu
Phone 402-472-7028
Web Page http://snr.unl.edu/aboutus/who/people/faculty-member.asp?pid=759
Project Information
Title Population Assessment of Channel Catfish in Nebraska
Other(s) Lindsey Chizinski, Graduate Assistant 
Description

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important sport fish, particularly in the Great Plains. In Nebraska, a majority of anglers target channel catfish, and fishing activities are a vital part of the state’s economy. Lentic water bodies provide the primary fishing opportunity for catfish anglers in Nebraska. Despite the popularity and economic importance of channel catfish, little is known of its population dynamics or habitat requirements, and existing studies often profile river populations.

Current standards for sampling channel catfish in lentic systems often yield inadequate catch to assess populations. The objective of this study was to utilize a recently developed sampling method, tandem-set hoop nets, to collect channel catfish in sufficient quantities to describe the effects of stocking and habitat variability on populations in lentic ecosystems. Three lentic ecosystems common to the Great Plains were considered: sand pits, flood-control reservoirs, and irrigation/power-generation reservoirs.

The influence of stocking on abundance and condition of channel catfish varied with ecosystem type. In sand pits, stocking negatively influenced fish condition, and only stocking on an annual basis positively influenced abundance. In flood-control reservoirs, stocking did not influence fish condition, but was associated with greater abundance. In irrigation/power-generation reservoirs, stocking did not influence fish condition or abundance. Additionally, there was evidence that mortality and growth rates varied with ecosystem type. In general, channel catfish from irrigation/power-generation reservoirs were predicted to experience slower growth and lower mortality, whereas channel catfish from sand pits were predicted to experience the fastest growth and highest mortality.

Catch rates of channel catfish were substantially less in this study compared to previous records of tandem-set hoop net surveys, but hoop nets were more efficient than the current standard gear, experimental gill nets, at capturing channel catfish. That is, 100 channel catfish could be captured with fewer sets of hoop nets than gill nets. However, catch rates and size structure of channel catfish in tandem-set hoop nets varied within the sampling season and between years. Furthermore, length-frequency distributions of channel catfish were dissimilar between hoop nets and gill nets.

Click here to read Lindsey Chizinski's Master's Thesis on Channel Catfish Population in Nebraska

Project Support Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Project Website http://snr.unl.edu/necoopunit/research.main.html#channel_catfish
Report
Current Status Completed